Ebook: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Green Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (GEESD2022)
With the general acknowledgement that climate change constitutes an existential threat to both mankind and to the planet, the quest for more sustainable and environmentally-friendly ways of developing and maintaining human civilizations has become ever more important in recent years.
This book presents the proceedings of GEESD2022, the 3rd International Conference on Green Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development. Due to continuing travel restrictions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the conference was held as a hybrid event, part face-to-face in Beijing, China, and partly online via Zoom, on 29 June 2022. The 141 papers included here were selected after a rigorous 6-month process of evaluation and peer-review from the more than 300 submissions received, and are grouped into 7 sections: energy system and smart control; sustainable and green energy; environmental modeling and simulation; environmental science and pollution research; ecology and rural environment; building and environment; and water and mineral resources.
The book provides an overview of the most up-to-date findings and technologies current in green energy, environment and sustainable development today, and will be of interest to all those working in the field.
The 3rd International Conference on Green Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (GEESD2022) was held successfully on June 29, 2022. Due to the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic and the strict travelling restrictions in China causing difficulties with international travel for foreign attendees, GEESD2022 was held as a hybrid event: in person in Beijing, China, and online using Zoom.
Around 120 attendees participated in the conference, which was divided into three parts: keynote sessions (each of 45 minutes) in the morning and 19 oral presentations (each of 15 minutes) in the afternoon. In addition, 45 e-posters were presented on the conference website. The session chairs and keynote speakers worked together to select the best oral presentation and poster presentation.
This year, GEESD2022 attracted more than 300 submissions, 141 of which were accepted for inclusion in this collection. The process of evaluation and peer-review took place over 6 months, and involved more than 100 TPC members and reviewers. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all these experts for their professional and detailed review comments, which contributed to the high standard of this collection.
This collection is divided into seven sections: (1) Energy System and Smart Control; (2) Sustainable and Green Energy; (3) Environmental Modelling and Simulation; (4) Environmental Science and Pollution Research; (5) Ecology and Rural Environment; (6) Building and Environment; (7) Water and Mineral Resources, with the most up-to-date findings and technologies being discussed. We believe participants of GEESD2022 have both gained knowledge and had the opportunity to meet new friends in the same field, and we hope that this collection will benefit readers in the same way.
Hubei University of Technology
This paper examines the path of new energy development in China against the backdrop of carbon maximum and carbon neutralization, and studies the risk of large scale new energy power transmission. In order to solve the complex uncertainty challenges of renewables power and power grid expansion planning, this paper studies and proposes an optimal economic planning model, which includes the thermal power generation start-up and shutdown expenses during the operation, the hydro power generation expenses of surplus water of reservoir, and the curtail penalty cost of new energy output power, the investment of new planning lines. The model has also considered the constraints of balance for power generation and load consumption, the power change rate, and operation, which are calculated based on the time-series operation simulation of new energy power system. Based on the functions, the process of power grid planning technology has been proposed. The planning model proposed in this paper can consider the new energy power characteristics of generation, realize the optimal planning of different power grid schemes. According to the case study findings, the new transmission line can relieve the pressure of local new energy transmission, while also improving power flow distribution as well as the rate of new energy utilization.
Aiming at the problems such as high failure rate, unable to perform state detection, difficult diagnosis of failure mode existing in optical measurement Sensor in HVDC, a state detection technology of the Sensor is proposed. Based on this technology, a dynamic accelerated aging test is carried out in which the Sensor is extracted by independent factor variables such as input voltage, temperature, laser input power, operating years, etc., and its failure mode and failure mechanism are comprehensively analyzed. Finally, it is found that temperature and laser input power are the main factors affecting the operation state of the Sensor, the temperature should not be higher than 30°C and the laser input power should not be greater than 1.2W.
Flexible fuel management in a nuclear power plant relates to the operational efficiency of the whole plant, which not only satisfies flexible fuel demands, but also has a positive effect on environmental pollution control. The proposed management strategy aims at improving energy utilization rate of nuclear fuel in nuclear power plants, meeting the needs of peak electricity consumption in summer and nuclear energy heating in winter, enhancing the economic efficiency of nuclear power plants, and reducing carbon emissions, thus contributing to energy carbon neutrality. In this paper, the Core and System Integrated Engine for design and analysis (COSINE) nuclear design software package was adopted to study the fuel management strategy for alternate refueling in 68 groups and 60 groups of assemblies, based on the current 64 groups of refuel assemblies at Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The results show that the Haiyang NPP has the capability to refuel flexibly between 68 and 60 groups of assemblies, and the reactor core design meets the relevant design guidelines and requirements.
Based on the “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality” goal, this paper combines the DSR model to build a carbon audit evaluation index system in the power industry, uses the entropy weight method to determine the index weight, and uses the TOPSIS model to calculate the effectiveness of carbon reduction and emission reduction. The research results show that from 2016 to 2020, the carbon reduction and emission reduction work in China’s power industry has achieved remarkable results, among which total profit, total reduction in soot emissions, total SO2 emissions reduction, total investment in electricity and total reduction in NOx emissions are the main factors affecting the carbon reduction and emission reduction of the power industry.
With the global economy and industry development, environment-friendly and sustainable development has become the mainstream of energy exploration and utilization. New clean geo-energy exploitation has become one crucial transformation attempt of the traditional petroleum industry. However, different from the traditional petroleum development, key problems of low efficiency and high risk, caused by complex geological environment and bottom-hole-assembly (BHA) vibration, are the main barriers of unconventional resources exploitation. In the present paper, a novel method of optimized drilling technology with intelligent vibration control (ODVC) is proposed based on technique surveys and a review of traditional methods. As a discussion result of technical features and key issues, ODVC could be a good alternative to contribute to the new clean geo-energy resources exploitation.
With the gradual integration of large wind farms, the wind power penetration in power system is gradually increasing. Since different wind turbines access grid may have different effects on the system, it is necessary to study the effect of different wind turbines access grid on the system transient stability. This paper makes a comparative study on the system stability of constant speed wind turbine (CSWT) and the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) after grid-connected. Firstly, we present the dynamic models of CSWT and DFIG. Then, we use IEEE 3-machine 9-bus system to study the effect of CSWT and DFIG connected to the system on the system transient stability under different wind power penetration. Simulation results show that with the increase of wind power penetration, the transient stability of the system shows a trend of increasing first and then decreasing. However, DFIG will deteriorate the system transient stability as wind power penetration increases.
The new round of power reform, energy internet and new generation digital technology has greatly promoted the development of integrated energy services. In order to develop a specialization integrated energy services plan, it is necessary to make a portrait of business scenes. Firstly, a set of indicator system is established, and typical daily load curves are extracted using Piecewise Aggregate Approximation method and Symbolic Aggregation Approximation method to calculate indicators to obtain the data base. Secondly, the clustering results of eight basic scenes are obtained using K-means cluster analysis method, namely, single-peak type which can participate in demand response, single-peak type which cannot participate in demand response), double-peak type which can participate in demand response, double-peak type which cannot participate in demand response, post-single-peak type and continuous power consumption type. Finally, integrated energy services solutions are proposed for the six business scenes respectively. The results show that the power consumption characteristics of each business scenes are very different, and it is necessary to develop specialization integrated energy service solutions for different scenes.
This paper presents a compact high-efficiency broadband microwave rectifier for free-space Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting. Lumped-element components and voltage-doubling circuits are used to improve output efficiency and power, widen frequency bandwidth, and reduce circuit size. The theoretical model and numerical model of the rectifier circuit are established, and the mechanism of the microwave voltage-doubling rectifier is revealed by using Advanced Design System (ADS) EM simulator. The simulated results exhibit that the rectification efficiency is larger than 60% with the highest efficiency of 84% under the input power of 16 dBm–30 dBm and the frequency of 600 MHz–1600 MHz. Moreover, the overall size is 4 cm × 2 cm, smaller than some recently published literatures, proving the circuit structure’s superiority. On this basis, for the lower operating frequency band, the circuit structure is further simplified without reducing bandwidth and efficiency by reducing the number of circuit components, and the overall size is only 2 cm × 2 cm. For validation, two broadband rectifiers fabricated by utilizing FR4 dielectric substrate and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology, are implemented and tested using Vector Signal Generator (VSG), DC resistance, and multimeter. The measure results are in good agreement with simulation ones within the measuring range of the equipment.
With the development of power systems, the application of energy storage (ES) technology has become widespread. The bi-directional power regulation capability and fast response rate of ES system can effectively assist the cooperative operation of the grid and load. In this paper, a two-stage optimization model for ES locating and sizing considering economic benefits and charging and discharging strategies is established. The optimization objectives are improving the power quality of distribution network and maximizing the revenue of energy storage, respectively. The effectiveness of the above model is verified in a 33-node distribution network. The results show that a reasonable ES locating and sizing plan can improve the utilization rate of ES and the operation optimization of distribution network.
This study examines the relationship between green technology innovation, new energy industry agglomeration and carbon emission efficiency from 2008 to 2019 in 30 provinces in China (apart from Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan). According to the study, the mean value of the three couples’ average coupling coordination degree is between 0.03 and 0.49, which means that they are still in the maladjustment stage and on the verge of forced coordination. And the dynamic PVAR model is further established to study and conclude that green technology innovation is fostered by carbon emission efficiency, which is also boosted by new energy industry agglomeration. However, there is no correlation between green technology innovation and new energy industry agglomeration, and the three systems have not formed a good circular driving effect temporarily.
The traditional discriminating of overheat faults of substation equipment by manual calculation is cumbersome, and it fails to deepen the application of the temperature measurement data. Based on the theoretical system of ubiquitous power Internet of things, the paper designed a discrimination and prediction system for overheat faults of substation equipment which were composed of four modules as intelligent data acquisition and analysis terminal, mobile phone client APP, substation equipment inspection management system and the analysis of big data platform by combining cloud, pipe, edge, field and terminal architecture systems. The discrimination and prediction system for overheat faults of substation equipment integrated multi-technology such as IoT communication and identification, cloud computing and storage, big data processing and analysis etc. The analysis results of the system can provide decision support for the intelligent management of substation equipment.
To address the problem that indirect evaporative cooling technology is limited in high humidity areas, this paper establishes an evaporative cooling system with dehumidification system, which uses the waste heat of data center and solar energy as the regenerative heat source of dehumidification bed, and introduces the selection method of the main equipment of this system; the performance of data center using this system in Guangzhou is analyzed and compared with the conventional mechanical refrigeration system. The results show that the PUE of the conventional mechanical cooling system is 1.4, and the PUE of the combined heat source system is 1.21, which is better than that of the conventional mechanical cooling system; the power consumption and carbon emission of the combined heat source system are much lower than that of the conventional cooling system, which shows a superior energy saving level.
Phase change material (PCM) can utilize different thermal storage modes to improve the efficiency of electric heating loads. Traditionally, PCM-based electric heating equipment is controlled by users respectively. There is a lack of interaction between the PCM-based electric heating equipment and the power dispatch company. The hierarchical optimal control strategy for electric heating load is proposed in this paper to deal with the problem. Firstly, based on the LSTM algorithm, the energy consumption characteristics of PCM-based electric heating are analyzed, and the load power of PCM-based electric heating is predicted, then the two-layer optimal electric heating loads control model is investigated with phase change thermal storage modes. The upper layer model is developed to minimize the cost of a comprehensive load dispatching scheme, and the lower layer model is aimed at minimizing the cost during peak and valley periods. Under different types of electric heating response, thermal storage response is designed to examine the electric heating load optimal control strategy. Finally, a typical example is used to verify the application of the two-layer optimal control strategy of the PCM-based electric heating loads. The technical method can effectively improve the thermal and electric conversion efficiency.
Various faults will occur in the power grid during operation, among which the system short-circuit fault is the most common. The introduction of the photovoltaic system has changed the structure of the power grid. The power grid is no longer the original single-source radial structure, but becomes a dual-end or multi-end power grid, thus changing the size, direction, and duration of fault current. It is helpful to study the current output characteristics of photovoltaic systems in a short circuit for the study of the power grid. Therefore, this paper builds a grid-connected photovoltaic generator model on the DigSILENT simulation tool to study the output characteristics in a short circuit. The models are simulated under different conditions of three-phase short circuit, two-phase short circuit, and single-phase short circuit. Through analysis, it is concluded that the current characteristics of distributed generation with a power electronic interface are related to the design of the interface and the control method of an interface when a short circuit occurs.
Independent microgrids have important implications for solving the problem of electricity consumption and electricity consumption in distant islands or hills. This paper takes island micro-grid as the research object, and constructs an independent microgrid with distributed generation, for instance photovoltaic/solar heat/wind/diesel/storage. The goal is to decrease overall investment fee and the probability of insufficient electric supply, a dual-objective capacity optimization configuration model of the microgrid is established. NSGA-II algorithm is to deal with the established model, The best solution of each distributed power type and capacity in isolated islanded microgrid is obtained. The simulation results show that the optimal configuration scheme can ensure that the established microgrid has good economic benefits while ensuring the reliability of power supply.
For the comprehensive characteristics of hydro-turbine, it is generally grasped through the full characteristic curve map of hydro-turbine obtained from the experiment. However, due to the factors such as time cost, fund cost, experimental difficulty and safety, the experimental results cannot hold onto each working condition of hydro-turbine. And for the specific conditions of unknown working conditions, linear interpolation needs to be carried out through the existing experimental results, which will have a certain hidden danger to the safe and stable operation of the turbine. This paper uses the advantages of neural network to predict the overall operation space of hydro-turbine through back-propagation neural network under the condition of existing experimental points. The results show that the neural network method can effectively ensure the accuracy of the operation characteristics of the hydro-turbine, which can guide the safe and stable operation of the hydro-turbine more clearly, and ensure the efficient and stable operation of the hydro-turbine.
Digital twin is a computer informational transformation technology of “combination of virtual and real”, it is accelerating the implementation in various fields. Based on the digital twin technology, relying on 3D design model of nuclear power plant. To use the method of modular design, this paper combed the relationship between the three-dimensional model and construction progress, established the corresponding relationship of model granularity at different levels, and used VR/AR technology for simulation to construct the 4D nuclear power plant model realizing the collaborative design and construction of nuclear power project. This paper has studied and adopted artificial intelligence algorithm and developed the software of intelligent layout of nuclear island pipelines in nuclear power plant, which has realized the intelligent layout design of nuclear power to a certain degree. On the basis of the above research and application, aiming at the cost of the design and construction of nuclear power plant, this paper expands the 3D and 4D models of nuclear power project to 5D model, and further studies the 6D model of nuclear power project based on the technology of digital twin, so as to meet the needs of operation and maintenance, simulation test and asset management after the completion and handover of nuclear power plant. Because of the development of chip, sensor, internet of things, software algorithm, machine learning and other technologies, digital twin will have more imagination space for application.
In order to realize the real-time simulation of regional integrated energy system, a multi-energy flow collaborative real-time simulation technology based on message bus is proposed, and the real-time simulation platform established on this basis realizes the real-time simulation of electrical and thermal systems. By using the co-simulator composed of message-oriented middleware and adapter to coordinate multiple simulators to complete the real-time simulation of the system in the loop, the message bus uses the open source ZeroMQ; it provides a unified message subscription and message publishing mechanism for all real-time simulators. Adapters are used to connect a variety of heterogeneous emulators, such as RT-LAB, TRNSYS, etc., to messaging middleware. Adopting message-oriented middleware and adapter scheme, it has the characteristics of open and extensible. The simulation system developed in this paper can be used in the real time simulation of distribution integrated energy system to realize the interaction between energy flow and information flow.
In order to optimize the comprehensive configuration of energy storage in the new type of power system that China develops, this paper designs operation modes of energy storage and constructs a power balance model considering the regulation priority of energy storage incorporated into the grid, the designed charging and discharging power and capacity of energy storage, and restrictions from external power systems. An electricity leveling per kWh cost model is established on three different types of energy storage. Data in Qinghai Province are used as a model application example to calculate and analyze the energy storage configuration and cost under a certain power curtailment target. The results show that among the multiple configuration plans that meet the curtailment rate target, molten salt storage characterized by high charging power, long discharging duration and low capacity cost, is the most advantageous.
For the sake of exploring how to apply new flexible resources to power system efficiently, it is urgent to study the comprehensive value of different flexible resources in typical application scenarios of power system. In this paper, a flexible resource value comprehensive evaluation index system is established from three dimensions: technical value, economic value and application value. Combined with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method, a comprehensive evaluation model of power system flexible resource value in typical application scenarios is constructed to evaluate the current value of flexible resources in China. The results show that the virtual power plant shows the highest flexible resource matching degree in the peak shaving and valley filling scenario and the auxiliary service scenario, and the electrochemical energy storage shows the highest flexible resource matching degree in the safety support scenario.
The vehicle’s thermal management system is critical to the safety, durability, performance and passenger comfort of fuel cell vehicles, and is also one of the core technologies of fuel cell vehicles. The thermal management system needs to meet the thermal balance of the vehicle under the operating limit conditions and balance the working temperature of different components. This paper analyzes the structure and control strategy of the thermal management system of different vehicle models through the research summary of the current thermal management technology of fuel cell vehicles, summarizes the impact of different parameters on thermal efficiency, and deeply analyzes the technical research field and development in this direction. The direction gives some methods to improve the performance of the thermal management system during the selection of the R&D technology route and the development process of the enterprise.
With the rapid development of mobile energy storage technology and electric vehicle technology, there are higher requirements on the flexible and convenient interface of mobile energy storage vehicle. This paper presents a gun/seat integrated control system for mobile energy storage vehicle. The integrated system model of the charging gun/charging base is established, the principle block diagram is drawn, the recognition principle and discrimination method of the plug-in state of the double head gun are analyzed, and the vehicle/pile switching function and anti-reverse connection function are designed under the condition of meeting the national standard. The main controller coordinates and controls the charging process of the charging pile and the power supplement process when it is used as a mobile energy storage vehicle. The converter is the hub of the mobile energy storage vehicle and the power grid. Through the real-time sampling of the power grid information and the double loop control strategy, the mobile energy storage vehicle has the power quality control functions such as reactive power compensation, harmonic control and imbalance control while completing its normal functions.
In view of the current development status and structural characteristics of fuel cells, the typical structure of fuel cells is introduced, the faults of fuel cell are classified and summarized, which are divided into mechanical failures, electrical failures, equipment factor failures, subjective factor failures, environmental failures, etc., the factors of fuel cell failures are analyzed, and effective methods for avoiding fuel cell failures are proposed. The workload of fault diagnosis is greatly reduced, and the safety and reliability of fuel cell engines are guaranteed.