Electromagnetic Field, Health and Environment mirrors the image of the EHE’07 conference which attracted people investigating the phenomenon of interaction of electromagnetic field and biological objects. This book tries to enlighten the problem with the use of scientifically founded facts kept within methodological discipline. The particular targets of the book can be briefly summarized as reviewing, presenting and discussing innovations in computer modeling, measurement and simulation of bioelectromagnetic phenomena, analyzing physical and biological aspects of bioelectromagnetic phenomena, and discussing environmental safety and policy issues as well as relevant international standards. The book is divided into five chapters of which the first three chapters deal with the electromagnetic field in combination with environment, health and biology respectively. The fourth chapter focuses on computer simulation in bioelectromagnetics, whereas the fifth chapter sees to the electromagnetic field in policy and standards. An additional three contributions are included: the first contribution shows the brief essay on Heinrich Rudolf Hertz in which the occasion of his birth 150 years ago is celebrated. The second summarizes the long-lasting research in magnetic stimulation and bioimaging and the third one considers some theoretical aspects of electromagnetic field.
The book mirrors the image of the EHE'07 conference (2nd International Conference on Electromagnetic Fields, Health and Environment) which was held in Wroclaw, Poland, 10–12 September 2007. The conference, the second in chain of EHE conferences – the first one, EHE'06, was held on April 27–29, 2006 on Madeira Island, Portugal – gathered engineers, biologists and physicists dealing with bioelectromagnetic problems, i.e. it attracted people investigating the phenomenon of interaction of electromagnetic field and biological objects. The problem is of great importance as the number of sources of electromagnetic field has increased dramatically in the last decades and still keeps growing. Both producers of electromagnetic energy and its consumers want to produce and to consume more and more energy, the first group because of commercial benefits while the second one because of their quality of life. And, somewhere aside there are groups of ecologists, journalists, medical doctors, who suspect, correctly or not, that electromagnetic field can interfere with living creatures. For many years has the discussion about these interactions lasted, and many scientific conferences have witnessed numerous emotional disputes. Because of the nature of non-ionizing radiation, i.e. because its effect in human is reversible and hardly measured inside, all the debates, and relevant discussions are very emotional and do not leave much place for scientific arguments. The ambiguity around bioelectromagnetism is especially seen in mass-media, where, almost every day, completely unfounded facts are revealed only evoking anxiety among people.
It seems to us that such book as you have in your hands, conferences as EHE, and many other similar scientific events, as well as series of books and scientific journals try to enlighten the problem with the use of scientifically founded facts. Of course, the discussion among scientists can be, and very often is, fierce and long-lasting, but all is carried out and kept within methodological discipline, which does not allow to go nowhere.
The particular targets of the book can be briefly summarized as reviewing, presenting and discussing innovations in Computer Modelling, Measurement and Simulation of Bioelectromagnetic Phenomena, analysing physical and biological aspects of Bioelectromagnetic Phenomena, and discussing Environmental Safety and Policy issues as well as relevant International Standards.
To make some order in reading the book, all the contributions are divided into 5 chapters which are named as follows:
1. Electromagnetic Field & Environment,
2. Electromagnetic Field & Health,
3. Electromagnetic Field & Biology,
4. Computer Simulation in Bioelectromagnetics,
5. Electromagnetic Field in Policy and Standards.
Three contributions are behind the above categorization and foreword the volume: the first contribution shows the brief essay on Heinrich Rudolf Hertz on the occasion of his 150 birth anniversary, the second summarizes the long-lasting research in magnetic stimulation and bioimaging and the third one considers some theoretical aspects of electromagnetic field.
We, the Editors of the volume, as well as all the authors whose contributions are the essence of the book, are convinced that all those who read it can find the subjects they are interested in.
Editors: Andrzej Krawczyk, Roman Kubacki, Sławomir Wiak, Carlos Lemos Antunes
In this paper a biographical draft of an eminent German physicist, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, has been presented. His tremendous contribution to the development of the science of electromagnetism has been underlined with special attention paid to the experimental verification of the crucial and turning point James Clark Maxwell theory.
New developments in the fields of biomagnetics and bioimaging have enabled the non-invasive brain-function measurement and localization of several human brain functions such as cognition, memory and learning. At the same time new biophysical phenomena such as cell and macromolecular alignment under strong magnetic fields and cancer therapies via magnetic nanoparticles and hyperthermia have opened new paths for biomedical engineering, cancer and immunological treatment. This paper presents a review on the recent work of our group in the topics of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), cancer therapy and cell orientation.
Self-field theory (SFT) provides deterministic eigensolutions to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations for the hydrogen atom where Planck's constant is the energy per cycle of the principal eigenstate . Based on a composite (hydrogenic) photon, an analytic expression for photon mass is obtained , where ωγ is a discrete photon transition frequency within each cycle of the electron. This expression is compatible with the fine-structure constant , where mγ=0.396×10−55 kg (0.221×10−19 eV). Thus there is a series of eigenstates within individual photons, like the atom, that vary with the ambient energy density or temperature. Within atoms and molecules, photon substructure introduces a previously unknown mechanism by which binding energies can vary between strong and weak structures in variation with the ambient energy density, or temperature. A range of physical and biological examples support photon substructure with its associated photon spectroscopy.
For 35 years already, a system for monitoring EMF exposure has been in operation in Poland. The system has been focussed primarily on the assessment of occupational exposure of the workers in plants and institutions using EMF-producing equipments, systems or installations, referred to as EMF sources. The system for monitoring of occupational EMF exposure is associated with human environmental protection. This paper presents the principles for the state system of protection against EMF and the project of the preparatory steps to be undertaken in association with Poland's accession to the European Union.
The paper deals with environmental interaction of electromagnetic fields emitted by computer monitors. Moreover, an ergonomic problem is considered that is related to the work of computer users and interaction of the network frequency magnetic field with screen monitors. The paper also provides opinions on the results of calculation and measurements of electromagnetic fields caused by computer monitors.
The aim of this paper is the essay and measurement of the magnetic induction at low frequencies produced by an asynchronous electrical machine. Measurements have been taken near to the machine, starting from its axis. We have worked at different frequencies, all of them below 50 Hz. This way we have studied the relationship between a non-punctual source of magnetic field, the frequency of the voltage and the values of the M.F. around it.
Fabián Déniz, Felipe Díaz, Antonio Pulido, Miguel Martínez
43 - 46
In this paper, the extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field environment around 66kV/20kV substation power is studied. This substation is located in Gran Canaria island, more precisely in a municipality with the largest tourist area on the island, covering one fifth of its surface. The relevance of these measurements is great because there are multi-family dwellings around the substation. These measurements were made using Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques. Also, several existing overhead transmission lines are in an area that has seen significant residential growth
Supplying electric power to central metropolitan areas is challenged by free area to build overhead high voltage transmission lines (OHTL). A solution is to share existing right-of-way (ROW). As a result, there are two or three voltage levels OHTL and oil and gas underground pipes. This paper presents a method to calculate magnetic field human exposure in the proximity of an utilities corridor with 345 kV, 230 kV and 88 kV OHTL in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, considering power flow direction and phase shift between concerned OHTL.
This study covers a case study on magnetic field measurements in a university campus area in Izmir, Turkey. A power transmission line of 154 kV, 50 Hz has previously been located inside of this area. In this study, it is aimed to determine the health risk of this transmission line in its vicinity. Measurements are realized using a calibrated Gauss-meter in multiple locations in different times. These measurements give people an idea about the safety of settling around power transmission lines. Safe distance limits are determined according to the international standards.
The paper presents a consequences of application a converter supply system in electro energetic grid of middle and high voltages, supplied a great power drive system (over 1000 kW), and their influences on quality of electric energy in industrial plants. Problems of influence electromagnetic and electrostatic fields generated from electro energetic grid, on surround environmental is analyzed in the paper The paper presents a mathematical analysis of phenomenon to occur in industrial plants of electro energetic grid of middle and high voltages, with great power load systems. A computer model of electro energetic supply system considerate a magnetic and electric field distribution are also presented in paper. For reduction of parasitic harmonics level in current supply and voltage supply are mostly applied a static capacitor filter. For reduction a negative influences of magnetic and electric field distribution on surround environments to work up a special criteria reduced an harmfully interaction. The paper present a solution with static and active power filters in reduction of high harmonics levels. Some results of computer simulation performed for selected electro energetic grid configuration, with and without active filter are presented in the paper. Results of industrial measurement are also presented in the paper
M. Filomena Botelho, A. Cristina Santos, M. Carmo Lopes, Marta Pinto, Isabel Carreira, Inês Aleixo, Inês Rolo, Luís Neves, Ricardo Costa, Rosemeyre Cordeiro, Cláudia Ferreira, Gilberto Almeida, Hugo Tavares, Joana Marques, João Castro, M. João Bártolo
67 - 71
We aimed to compare eventual biological effects in cellular cultures after X-ray irradiation. Human amnyocytes and rat peritoneal macrophages, irradiated with 3 Gy (G II) and 6 Gy (G III) were compared with a non-irradiated control (G I) over time. Both cell lines were isolated and cultured under aseptic conditions (37°C, 5% CO2). Cell proliferation and radiation cytotoxic effects were studied with the MTT test Cytogenetic evaluation of amnyocytes was done at 4, 24, 120 and 144 h post-irradiation, showing a correlation between the decrease of the survival rate and the increase of the irradiation intensity, although with some recovery capacity. For rat peritoneal macrophages the 6 Gy were also more harmful, killing the majority of the cells. The 3 Gy dose, although aggressive, enables a higher survival rate.
Grzegorz Cieslar, Paweł Sowa, Beata Kos-Kudla, Aleksander Sieron
72 - 78
The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of static electric fields with physical parameters generated nearby HVDC transmission lines on hormonal system of experimental animals. 96 male Wistar rats were exposed for 56 consecutive days (8 hours daily) to static electric field with intensity of 16, 25 and 35 kV/m respectively, while 32 control rats were shame-exposed. Exposure to static electric fields evoked transient stimulation of insulin and thyroid hormones secretion as well as decrease in serum corticosterone level. As observed effects appeared mostly for intensity above 16 kV/m in prepared recommendations potential harmful effect of electric fields with such intensities should be regarded.
This article presents the problem of classification of endogenous rhythms with electrocardiography signals coming from patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker. Efficiency of detection of QRS complex was examined by algorithms working in time domain. During the investigation attention was paid to proper selection of level decomposition, good choice of detection threshold as well as choice of wavelet transformation. In case of identification of endogenic rhythm attention was paid to architecture of feedforward neural network, selection of teaching file and the accuracy of classification depending on the activation function used.
The effects of decimeter microwaves (irradiation 460 MHz with output power 60 MW, duration 20 min) on functions of the visual system structures: retina, visual cortex and colliculus superior – under the conditions of formation of the focus of increased excitability in the amygdala and hypothalamus were studied. Transformation of patterns of responses in the retina, visual cortex and colliculus superior, being expressed in the most prominent way in the retina, evoked by photostimulus presentation, was shown. The clinical observations (duration: 30 days) revealed aggravation of general status. Immediately after irradiation exposure all studied rabbits showed transient signs of the first stage of kindling by the R. Racine scale; very often seizure jerking movements of limbs was observed. Besides, interictal spikes were registered electrographically.
Bartosz Sawicki, Robert Szmurło, Przemysław Płonecki, Jacek Starzyński, Stanisław Wincenciak, Andrzej Rysz
92 - 97
This article presents a numerical model of a human vagus nerve stimulation therapy. The authors demonstrate methodology allowing to model both the direct electrical stimulator used for years in medical practice as well as the conceptual indirect magnetic stimulation used in computer experiments. The mathematical model of neural tissue excitation combined with a realistic 3D numerical model of the neck with the vagus nerve is described.
W. Stankiewicz, M.P. Dąbrowski, A. Cheda, E. Nowosielska, J. Wrembel-Wargocka, R. Kubacki, M. Janiak, S. Szmigielski
98 - 101
Human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were exposed to X-rays 0,1 Gy, to Microwaves 2850 MHz, SAR 0,1 W/kg or to the both exposures sequentially. In the microculture system functional properties of T lymphocytes and monocytes were tested and production of monokines (IL-1β, IL-1ra) was estimated. The irradiation protocols influenced differentially T cell response to mitogens (PHA, Con A), degree of saturation of IL-2 receptors, immunoregulatory T cell suppressive avtivity, monocyte immunogenic activity and monokine production. The administered irradiations have demonstrated immunotropic influence modulating the both T lymphocyte immunocompetent functions and monocyte immunogenic activity.
Dana Dabala, Didi Surcel, Csabo Szanto, Simona Miclaus, Mariana Botoc, S. Toader, O. Rotaru
105 - 109
Although the physical techniques for measuring of the electromagnetic fields (EMF) are well developed, adequate characterization of the biological effects induced by EMF is subject of discussion yet. We don't know the effects that would be after a long term of exposure. Many scientific studies have been devoted to assessing what health risks are associated with EMF exposure. Data from the recent experiments suggest that EMF are associated with the iron-mediated free radical generation, that can cause damage in the biologic molecules such as lipids, proteins and can profoundly affect cellular homeostasis. The aim of this study was to show the effects of the chronic exposure to EMF on the immune and oxidative response. In vivo experiment was carried out on 80 Wistar rats that were divided in 4 groups as following: 1. Control-group, without exposure, sacrificed at 1 month; 2. Control-group, without exposure sacrificed at 3 months; 3. EMF-exposed group, sacrificed at 1 month; 4. EMF-exposed group, sacrificed at 3 months. The rats were exposed to RF EMF that covers a range of the frequencies between 140–160 MHz generated by a Motorola device. The components of EMF field were measured with an EMF 200 Monitor Wandel&Goltermann (the measured Power density (S) was 8+/−1 W/m2).The following parameters were assessed: a) 3HTdR incorporation test; b) IL-1 assay; c) TNF-assay; d) Chemiluminiscence assay; e) Lipid peroxides. The 3HTdR incorporation was decreased in the EMF-exposed groups, as compared with control groups, but with statistically significant difference (ssd) (p>0.01) only in third group. Increased values of the cytokines (IL-1 and TNF) were found in the 3 and 4 – groups, with ssd for both of the cytokines (p>0.05 for IL-1 and p>0.01 for TNF) Chemiluminescence assay and lipid peroxides were parameters with increased values for 3 and 4 groups, but ssd were found only in the forth-group. Our results point out an important increased of the oxidative response in the EMF-exposed groups, in special in the group sacrificed at 3 months. In the forth group, an important suppression of the immune response and increased activity of the cytokines was demonstrated. Our results indicate an association between electromagnetic fields and immune and oxidative response, suggesting increased modifications in the group with EMF-prolonged exposure.
A.H.J. Fleming, E.B. Bauer, R. Bergeron, M. Dahle, J. Enge
110 - 115
This pilot investigation assessed the effectiveness of a vibrating acoustic device combined with a system of structurally imbedded permanent magnets to increase perfusion in areas of application. The device, a Cyma 1000, delivered five acoustic frequencies 900–1300 Hz chosen for arterial support. The permanent magnet was built into the face of the applicator and oscillated at the same frequencies as the generated acoustic wave. A control group was chosen having normal perfusive ability, a second group was chosen to test the applicator's ability to assist perfusion across a range of pathological conditions. Thermography was used to view perfusion before and after application. Both groups and all cases studied showed application improved perfusion.
Taiki Hori, Koji Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki Ishihara, Toshiyuki Todaka, Masao Nakajima
116 - 121
In this paper, effect and magnetic mechanism of pulsed magnetic field for the green leaf vegetable were examined and evaluated by quantifying the color change, respiration, and stomatal aperture of it. As the results, it is shown pulsed magnetic field exposure suppressed the yellowing and respiration of the green leaf vegetable. Furthermore, it is shown that it keeps the freshness of vegetables, since pulsed magnetic field affects the stoma, from the result that respiration rate and stomatal aperture decreased after pulsed magnetic field exposure.
Mutagenicity and co-mutagenicity of strong static magnetic field up to 5 T was estimated in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae XD83. We observed that exposure to a 5 T static magnetic field resulted in a slight but significant increase in gene recombination frequency while reverse mutation was not altered. This mutagenic effect showed a dose response relationship as J-shape. In co-mutagenicity assay, it was found that exposure to a 5 T static magnetic field has tendency to enhance the mutagenic potential of Zeocin (Phleomycin) that is an antibiotic agent by free radical production. These results suggest that strong static magnetic field would have small but detectable mutagenic and possible weak co-mutagenic potential. However, the extent is estimated extremely small by comparison with other mutagens such as ultraviolet irradiation.
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