Ebook: Hydraulic and Civil Engineering Technology VII
Engineering technology is of crucial importance to the infrastructure on which modern societies depend, and keeping abreast of the latest research and developments in the field is of vital importance.
This book presents the proceedings of HCET 2022, the 7th International Technical Conference on Frontiers of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering Technology, originally due to be held, in Sanya, China, from 25-27 September 2022, but instead held as a fully virtual event on Zoom due to continued uncertainty related to the Covid 19 pandemic. HCET is a platform for the dissemination of research results on the latest advances in the areas of hydraulic and civil engineering technology and environmental engineering, and provides an opportunity for scientists, researchers and engineers from around the world to exchange their findings, discuss developments, and possibly establish a basis for collaboration. A total of 275 submissions were received from international contributors, and all were subjected to a rigorous peer-review process, with each paper reviewed by a minimum of two experts. Papers were also checked for quality and plagiarism, after which, 163 papers were accepted for presentation and publication. Topics covered include the research and development of concrete structure design and analysis, structural mechanics and structural engineering, geological exploration and earthquake engineering, building technology, urban planning, energy, environment and advanced engineering science and applications.
The book offers a state-of-the-art overview of recent developments, and will be of interest to all those working in the fields of hydraulic and civil engineering technology.
The 7th International Technical Conference on Frontiers of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering Technology (HCET 2022) was due to be held in Sanya from 25–27 September 2022, hosted by Henan Polytechnic University, China and the Chinese University of Geosciences (Wuhan). The conference is also organized in partnership with China Communications Construction Co., Ltd. (CCCC), China Railway Major Bridge Engineering Group Co., Ltd (MBEC), Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada and Northwestern University, USA. Given the instability of the situation due to the Covid 19 pandemic, however, it was decided to hold the conference as a fully virtual event on Zoom.
This conference is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of research results on the latest advances made in the area of hydraulic and civil engineering technology and environmental engineering, and offers a common platform and an excellent opportunity for scientists, researchers and engineers from around the world to exchange their findings and discuss developments, as well as establishing a basis for starting collaborations at both a national and international level.
This volume of proceedings presents full-length research papers, experience reports, and empirical study plans from international contributors. In total, 275 research papers were submitted, and all were subjected to a rigorous peer-review process commensurate with their track, with each paper being reviewed by a minimum of two experts. After review and checks for quality and plagiarism, 163 papers were accepted for publication. Among other things, these focus on the research and development of concrete structure design and analysis, structural mechanics and structural engineering, geological exploration and earthquake engineering, building technology, urban planning, energy, environment and advanced engineering science and applications.
The conference was characterized by presentations of state-of-the-art studies, lively discussions, and friendly communications. These proceedings are a collection of the excellent works presented; proof of the progress in research and a milestone in this area.
On behalf of the organizing committee, we extend our heartfelt gratitude to all keynote speakers and participants. We also extend our thanks to the international reviewers and the members of the program committee for their dedicated contribution and commitment.
We look forward to meeting you next year!
Henan Polytechnic University, China
Ryerson University Toronto, Canada
Hydrological jump characteristics in a rectangular open channel flume with sluice gates at both ends are the focus of this article. Among the many aspects of hydraulic jump that have been examined analytically and experimentally are: (i) Sequent depth relation unmapped: inline-formula unmapped: math unmapped: mo (unmapped: mstyle unmapped: mfrac unmapped: mrow unmapped: msub unmapped: mrow unmapped: mi yunmapped: mrow unmapped: mn 2unmapped: mrow unmapped: msub unmapped: mrow unmapped: mi yunmapped: mrow unmapped: mn 1unmapped: mo ), (ii) Length of the jump, (iii) Relative loss of energy unmapped: inline-formula unmapped: math unmapped: mo (unmapped: mstyle unmapped: mfrac unmapped: mrow unmapped: msub unmapped: mrow unmapped: mi Eunmapped: mrow unmapped: mi Lunmapped: mrow unmapped: msub unmapped: mrow unmapped: mi Eunmapped: mrow unmapped: mn 1unmapped: mo ), (iv) Water profile of the jump. There was a total of 15 inflow tests conducted. With values between 1.5 and 1.7, Froude’s number displays considerable variation. The results show that when the slope increases, the sequent depth ratio, leap length, and Relative energy loss all decrease. The fluctuation of the relative energy loss unmapped: inline-formula unmapped: math unmapped: mo (unmapped: mstyle unmapped: mfrac unmapped: mrow unmapped: msub unmapped: mrow unmapped: mi Eunmapped: mrow unmapped: mi Lunmapped: mrow unmapped: msub unmapped: mrow unmapped: mi Eunmapped: mrow unmapped: mn 1unmapped: mo ) with Pre-jump Froude’s number (F1) for different slopes is also indicated by the graph. The graph also depicts the water profile of the leap. Continuous flow is shown by the relatively uniform discharge at each location.
The research focuses on the tailing dump, which is located in the Norilsk industrial region’s (Northern Siberia) territory. The difficulty of precisely calculating the period of tailings consolidation presented itself to the authors while they conducted research on improving the technological parameters of the tailings alluvium. Without resolving this issue, it is impossible to improve the technology of the tailings alluvium. In order to assure safety and efficiency at all phases of construction and to strengthen the stability of the examined tailings, a sophisticated set of model tests and calculations was conducted. This work provided the foundation for modifying the work techniques. The method for defining the maximum density at the optimum humidity, when the formation of a geotechnical massif at the tailing dam’s inwash occurs, has been devised on the basis of laboratory testing. The findings from study may be effectively used as the foundation for building tailing dams.
Alternative approaches to the estimation of corrosion-damaged beams stiffness with regard for localization of corrosion focus and distribution of corrosion damages in concrete on the basis of layered model are considered. The following methods of determining displacements in corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete beams of rectangular cross-section have been considered. In the first one, the stiffness of the beam in determining the deflection is considered constant. In this case, the corrosion-damaged deflections values may be underestimated due to failure to take into account the actual work of reinforced concrete. In the second, the deflection is calculated considering the height of the concrete compression zone that varies along the length of the beam. For these approaches, stiffness reduction in the beam sections in the presence of corrosion damage to the concrete of the compressed zone is modeled. It is shown that in the presence of corrosion damage, the deflections of the structure can significantly increase, which requires mandatory consideration in the life cycle of load-bearing structures of structures when assessing their mechanical safety. The necessity of obligatory registration of corrosion damages in the implementation of algorithms of optimal design of reinforced concrete structures has been revealed.
Fluid flow emerges with high velocity referred as liquid jet. Water Jet having its applications in many fields includes agriculture and power generation and it has been widely utilized. Impact value of the jet is highly important, to generate maximum efficiency in operation. Many factors influence the impact value of jet and it depends on type of vane used such as: Flat, hemispherical, curved etc. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact coefficient of jet for various discharges by comparing theoretical forces as well as forces developed through experiments for different target vanes. A systematic estimation of theoretical forces, experimental forces and its error was done in this experiment. For this purpose, weigh balance, target plates, vanes, recirculation pipes and Rotameter were used. Result of this study indicate: discharge variability influences the impact value and for a particular discharge obtained values are within the limit.
The transport of small particles in soil voids is a common problem in construction. Filtering determines the creation of foundations by pumping liquid grout and building watertight walls in the soil. A 1-D model of depth filtration for a slurry in a porous medium is considered. It is assumed that the velocity of the carrier liquid is high enough to detach the deposited particles from the carcass of the porous medium. To take into account the effect of sediment lifting, the particle release function is introduced into the standard filtration model. For the filtration model with deposit release, analytic solutions are found at the inlet of the porous sample and at the concentration front. An asymptotics near the concentration front and a traveling wave solution are constructed.
Open Ground Storey buildings (OGS) are commonly constructed in the UAE, since these buildings has some functional advantage as parking, shop etc. However, they can be a hazard during an earthquake. In this study, a real building located in Al Muraqqabatm Dubai is chosen. This building is a type of OGS building coupled with shearwall. To understand the behaviour and strength of buildings a non-linear Static Analysis (Pushover Analysis) is carried out to determine the force capacity by applying lateral load from different direction that will allows to evaluate the building beyond elastic range. Building frame were analysed, for bare frames and infilled frames. Seismostruct  software was used for analyses to understand as Lateral Displacement profile, Storey Shear, Storey Drift and Base-shear force, in a result to generate Capacity Curve for both frames.
The article briefly describes the technical characteristics of Russian high-rise buildings. It presents an in-depth study and analysis of the historical background and the main problems of Russian high-rise buildings today and assesses the trends in the Russian high-rise construction industry. This study is based on an extensive review of the scientific literature, focusing on the historical development and technical characteristics of tall buildings in Russia, The current shortcomings and development prospects of high-rise buildings in Russia are analyzed, and the analogy and graphic methods. Within the framework of which goals and objectives were formulated, methods and means were selected, criteria for evaluating empirical information and analysis results were established. It is hoped that it can bring some reference to Russian high-rise construction, enhance the understanding of Chinese construction enterprises in Russia and research universities about Russian high-rise buildings, and lay the foundation for smooth development and research of construction projects.
The influence of scrap plastic drinking bottles on the strength and swelling qualities of lean clay is investigated in this paper. Before use, waste plastic bottles (WPB) were cut into 4 mm strips and mixed with soil in proportions of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (dry weight of soil). The prepared materials were subjected to three standard tests: Proctor test, swelling, and strength penetration test California Bering Ratio (CBR). The results of tests revealed that WPB have a substantial impact on the clay’s compaction, swelling, and strength qualities.
The upper structure of high piled wharf in coastal soft soil area is loaded by waves or ships, which is transferred to the foundation soil through the pile foundation. The force is small and lasts for a long time, which causes the strength of saturated soft clay in the vibration range to decrease slowly, and the weakening effect of soil gradually accumulates, resulting in the horizontal displacement of pile foundation. In this paper, the maximum horizontal displacement and residual horizontal displacement of pile are deduced and calculated by the analytical method through appropriate simplification, considering the stiffness of pile group, plastic deformation of soil and cyclic weakening. A simplified calculation method of horizontal displacement of pile under horizontal cyclic load is obtained. Compared with the numerical simulation method, the results show that the simplified calculation theory of pile horizontal displacement under horizontal load can better reflect the displacement development law of pile, and then can predict the long-term deformation of pile.
The microstructure of loess mainly reflects the size distribution, orientation, contact mode and pore distribution of particles. The six original loess (low clayey silt loess) on the same site in Lanzhou is selected by the direct shear test, high power electron microscope and energy spectrum test. To simulated calculation the cohesion (C) and internal friction angle (φ), used by the parameters data, including to the mineral element (Fe/Al/Si, Al/Si, K) ratio, microstructure parameters (Long axis of the particles, long axis’ skewness, kurtosis and orientation degree. The results indicated that the (φ) value was linearly correlated with the mean value of the Angle, and the correlation coefficient of the fitting formula was 0.82. The cohesion C value was linearly correlated with the kurtosis, Skewness, Fe/Si, Al/Si and K/Al of the long axis, and the maximum correlation coefficient after fitting was 0.99. The fitting formula of microcosmic parameters and shear strength can provide a new research method for predicting the shear strength of loess samples.
Today, with the popularization of mechanical ventilation and refrigeration technology, humans have freed themselves from the constraints of nature and effectively improved and created a comfortable indoor microclimate. At the same time, the energy consumption of buildings and the consumption brought by these energy sources have greatly changed our living environment and caused serious energy and environmental consequences, making people re-examine the passive energy-saving technology. Taking the natural ventilation design method as the main line, taking the excellent energy-saving building case as the starting point, focusing on the building components, this paper compares and studies the form of the building based on the passive natural ventilation technology.
In order to solve many disadvantages of the artificial water curing method commonly used in precast beam yard, control the curing quality of precast beam, the intelligent curing system of cement concrete precast beam is developed, which adopt wireless sensor and automatic control technology collecting the temperature and humidity data of cement concrete components, when the preset threshold value is exceeded, the intelligent linkage curing robot can automatically control water quantity, spray frequency, curing time, intelligent water supplement in curing cycle in the curing process. The practice shows that the system can achieve all-weather, no dead angle continuous curing, effectively save water, reduce personnel input, improve the early strength of concrete, reduce the development of shrinkage cracks, and effectively improve the standardized, accurate and intelligent level of concrete precast beam curing work.
In this work we demonstrate the images of multi-angle porometry of civil engineering composites with the static pores. We also demonstrate an example of the application of multi-angle scanning methods where each pore visualization angle corresponds to the certain time moment. The light source can be either incoherent or coherent, which determines the data interpretation principles and data processing algorithms. The light detector can be either optical microscopic (with lenses) or lens-less, that is, either a microscope with an objective or a lens-less one, especially a holographic lens-less microscope. The latter is by definition compatible with multi-angle microporometry. The data on reconstruction of the surface texture of a complex pore using an incoherent light source and the Sobel-Feldman operator (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL)) is presented.
It is necessary to set up slagging well to facilitate slagging and improve construction efficiency during the construction of tunnel shaft inverse well method. Due to the geological condition of the shaft and human factors, the slag chute is easily blocked and the construction period is affected. The conventional dredging method has some problems such as low efficiency, complicated process and long time limit. In this paper, based on Yunnan province Taihe Sumie to Lincang highway tunnel shaft engineering, put forward a way to use two strands in a certain distance between wire rope clamp, two of the same height of the steel wire rope clip through the switch assembly structure of the hinge connection, can be efficient and convenient to dredge the well construction shaft sneak slag well jam problem, as a reference for other similar projects.
In order to solve the problems of poor timeliness of data collection, scattered information management and difficulty of quality traceability in the process of highway construction, this paper, according to the development needs of the industry, uses information technology to carry out the top-level design and function development of intelligent functional area around personnel, equipment, materials, process engineering method, environmental protection and quality safety in the process of engineering construction, and through the application of actual engineering, realize The transformation and development of engineering construction management has important application significance and reference value.
Geological disaster rockburst occurred frequently in deep and high stress engineering, which affects the safe and efficient construction of the project seriously. A successful rockburst monitoring and warning example is of great significance to rockburst risk control. In this paper, a case study of rockburst monitoring and warning in deep tunnels with complex geological environment in Himalaya was given. The complex geological environment background of the project, implementation of rockburst monitoring, microseismicity monitored, microseismicity in the rockburst development process, rockburst warning method and warning results in the deep tunnels were described. The successful application of rockburst monitoring and warning under the complex geological environment in Himalaya shows that it is feasible for rockburst risk mitigation. The result will be helpful for rockburst monitoring, warning and risk mitigation in similar deep and complex engineering.
With the development of science and technology, the process of urbanization is accelerating, and many structures are developing towards the trend of large-scale. The emergence of large-scale structures such as aircraft, buildings and bridges provides a more comfortable and convenient living space for human beings, but there are also some mechanical problems in the design and manufacturing process of these large-scale structures. For example, due to the influence of size, wind load, earthquake and other load forms will have a great impact on the structure. According to the above requirements, this paper designs a structural vibration reduction design based on tuned mass damper (TMD), and analyzes its application effect. The analysis results show that this design method is a simple, effective and economical control method, which can effectively reduce the acceleration and displacement of large-scale structures under vibration.
The study of ground motion effects at river valley sites is an important guide to site selection and seismic design. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical simulation is used to explore the influencing factors of a river valley site. By selecting four influencing factors with different input ground motion spectrum characteristics, ground motion intensities, site slope angles and depth-to-width ratios, orthogonal test forms are designed to determine the calculation conditions, and numerical simulation analysis is conducted. The study obtains the ranking of influencing factors for the top section of the slope, slope section and valley bottom section at different locations of the river valley site. The main influencing factor is the spectral characteristics of the input ground motion; the main influencing factor of the slope section and the valley bottom section is also the spectral characteristics of the input ground motion; and the overall analysis of the amplification effect pattern of the trapezoidal valley site shows that the amplification effect of the valley bottom site is the smallest and that the amplification of the slope top site is the largest.
The modified asphalt used in the Drainage Pavement generally adopts the wet process, and the wet modified asphalt has good performance. However, with the application of wet modified asphalt, modified asphalt is faced with some problems, such as easy segregation, high cost and difficult quality control. The application of direct feed modifier is a dry process. It is first mixed with aggregate, and then asphalt and other materials are added to prepare asphalt mixture. The application of direct injected modifier avoids the shortcomings brought about by wet process. In this study, direct injected high viscosity direct injected modifier with excellent performance in all aspects is selected for plant mixing of asphalt mixture by dry process, including the impact of dry mixing time and dry mixing temperature on the performance of mixture in indoor mixing, so as to guide the determination of plant mixing dry process. The asphalt mixture in the test project is selected for sampling analysis to study the difference between the performance of the mixture prepared by the plant mixing dry process and the performance of the indoor mixture.
In order to improve the intelligent level of man-machine interaction and auxiliary decision, this paper takes a bridge as the engineering background, selects box girder, pier, cap, pile foundation and so on to carry out parametric modeling. The secondary development process of Revit was explored. Based on IFC framework, Revit API functions were used to expand the data dimension of Revit. To make the bridge health inspection system redundant data visualization, to present the effect of real-time data model, can more intuitively understand the health of the bridge, the bridge disease status to make real-time diagnosis, early warning, and put forward the disposal countermeasures. Through the analysis of the model and data, the influence of the bridge under different climate conditions can be understood, so as to work out the most suitable bridge management and maintenance plan, increase the work efficiency in the operation and maintenance stage, and reduce the waste of funds.
A scoured bridge may be suffered from earthquake loads, and be damaged more seriously relative to single seismic loads. Recent works mainly focused on the seismic fragility or reliability of scoured bridges. However, little work was performed to investigate the seismic risk and the cost of a bridge system under the double hazards in a bridge’s service life. In this work, the seismic risk and cost of a bridge under earthquake and scour were evaluated through a proposed probabilistic method. Numerical experiments are used to illustrate the usefulness of the developed probabilistic method. The findings indicate that scour significantly increases the annual failure probability and the life-cycle maintenance cost of the bridge under earthquake hazard.
Fault, crushed zone, and other unfavorable geology may frequently appear in the construction of tunnels, so it is of course necessary to study on the dynamic properties of tunnels crossing rock fracture zone. Taking the tunnel crossing faults as the object, this paper discussed the dynamic constitutive relation satisfied by tunnel structures and researched the loading features and failure characteristics of the different tunnel crossing faults. It shows that: (1) tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity shall have reinforced concrete lining, to improve its ability of resisting tension failure, (2) the stress at the waist on both sides of the tunnel arch is the maximum, and tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity shall have reinforced concrete lining to improve its ability of resisting tension failure. This research is of great reference significance to the construction of tunnels crossing rock fracture zone.
Outlier is attached importance in statistics and engineering, because it might result in misleading identification results. However, there is significant uncertainty in the outlier detection, when an outlying observation lies close to the boundary between outliers and regular data or there are sparse observations. The associated uncertainty of outlier mostly results from statistical uncertainty of parameters, such as mean value and standard deviation. However, it is unknown how the statistical uncertainty influences the outlier detection. This paper compares two outlier detection methods for influence study of statistical uncertainty on probabilistic outlier detection. One is based on Mahalanobis distance (MD) using the total probability theorem combining with the half-means method (RHM). The other is RHM method with Bayesian machine learning (BML), which can consider the statistical uncertainties of parameters in MD. The simulated dataset with outliers are used to comparative study. Different dimensional dataset and various numbers of observations and outliers are simulated. Thereinto, outliers are simulated through double-mode triangle distribution. The results show that it is necessary to consider the statistical uncertainty for sparse multivariate observations.