Ebook: Advances in Machinery, Materials Science and Engineering Application
Keeping up to date with advances in material science and applied engineering is essential for those working in the field if they are to understand and tackle the challenges they face in an efficient manner and adopt the best and most appropriate solutions available.
This book presents the proceedings of MMSE 2022, the 8th International Conference on Advances in Machinery, Materials Science and Engineering Application, held as a hybrid event (both in-person and online) in Wuhan, China, on 23 and 24 July 2022. For the past 12 years, the MMSE international conferences have collated recent advances and experiences, identified emerging trends in technology and encouraged lively debate between students, specialists, engineers and associations from around the world, all of which have had a positive impact in helping to address the world’s engineering challenges. The book contains 121 papers, selected by means of a rigorous international peer-review process by editors and reviewers from the 215 submissions received. Topics covered include the latest advancements in applied mechanics, intelligent manufacturing technology, mechanical and electromechanical engineering, heat transfer, combustion, advanced materials sciences, industrial applications, applied mathematics, simulation and interdisciplinary engineering.
Presenting a wealth of exciting ideas for solving real problems in the real world and opening novel research directions, the book will be of interest to materials specialists and engineers from both academia and industry everywhere.
The 2022 8th International Conference on Advances in Machinery, Materials Science and Engineering Application (MMSE 2022) was held at Academic Exchange Center of China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China, both in-person and online, on July 23–24, 2022. It was organized by the China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and ISAE-Supméca/Paris, co-organized by National University of Singapore, Singapore, Italian Association of Robotics and Automation, University of Genova, Italy and University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France.
For the past 12 years, the MMSE international conferences have collated recent advances and experiences, identified emerging trends in technology and encouraged lively debate between students, specialists, engineers and associations from around the world, all of which have had a positive impact in helping to address the world’s engineering challenges. The book contains 121 papers selected from 215 submitted contributions. These papers, which were selected by means of a rigorous international peer-review process by editors and reviewers, present a wealth of exciting ideas that will open novel research directions among specialists and engineers.
It introduces the latest advancements in the subjects of applied mechanics, intelligent manufacturing technology, mechanical engineering, electromechanical, heat transfer, combustion, advanced materials sciences, industrial applications, applied mathematics, simulation and interdisciplinary engineering in the real world, for solving real problems. This proceedings will benefit readers from both academia and industry in understanding and tackling the challenges in an efficient manner and in adopting appropriate solutions in the fields mentioned above.
We sincerely appreciate the participants who contributed their latest research results to MMSE, the conference editors and reviewers who made a great effort in this program, as well as the conference staff.
Building on the success of previous conferences, we hope the MMSE series will be one of the most spectacular events in those areas in the future. It is the place to present technical research and expertise, while also learning from and connecting with thousands of fellow researchers on a global level.
The Chairs of MMSE2022
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Porous carbon materials was synthesized using MCM-41as template and self–N–doped porous carbon material was fabricated via a well–directed synthesized 1–butyl–3–methylimidazolium triazole [Bmim]tr, an exemplary ionic liquid (IL) possessing 36.4 wt % N content and dual–aromatic anion/cation. The obtained materials had well–distributed hierarchical meso–/micro–pore structure, a large surface area (1425.6 m2 g−1), and high N content (11.29 wt%), which provided efficient electron transmission capability, thus significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance. At 1.0 A g−1, the specific capacitance from the CN900 sample achieved 376.4 F g−1. In addition, a high energy density of 13.07 Wh kg–1 at 500 W kg–1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, a high stability of more than 97.7% after 10,000 cycles was obtained. This study presents that the dual–aromatic cation/anion–based ILs with high N–content/MCM–41 template strategy is promising for the preparation of self–N–doped carbon materials for supercapacitor applications.
Because of the anisotropic nature of composite materials, they can show different material properties in different directions. Therefore, it is decisive to determine the mechanical properties of composites. In this study, performance comparison of analytical methods and numerical methods are investigated. The most well-known analytical method, the strength of the material method, and the relatively more complex and widely used Chamis’ equations and Tsai-Halpin equations were selected. Numerically, the finite element-based representative volume element (RVE) homogenization method without periodic boundary conditions is chosen. As a result, the modulus of elasticity in the fiber direction and the major Poisson’s ratio values are similar for all methods. Tsai-Halpin method and RVE Homogenization method can predict the transverse elasticity value close to each other, Chamis’ equations also provide results relatively close to these results, but the results obtained from the strength of material approaches are not acceptable. From the study, it was revealed every method can be used to identify modulus of elasticity in fiber direction and major Poisson’s ratio but modulus of elasticity in the transverse direction and shear modulus can be calculated in other methods.
The alkali melting method was used to pretreat the specimens of Neodymium-iron-boron alloy, and the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer was used to determine the main element boron in NdFeB alloy. The parameters of the instrument were optimized to select the best spectral line for the determination of boron, and the effect of matrix effect was overcome by adding Fe. The method has good precision and accuracy, the recoveries are in the range of 99%∼101%, and the RSD are less than 1%, which is suitable for the determination of boron in daily production analysis.
Research on the key parameters of tube mold for rail steel bloom was carried out in this paper, the effects of cooling water on bloom quality was studied, the effects of tube mold on magnetic intensity of electro-magnetic-stirring was analyzed, the shielding effect of tube mold on stirring intensity was represented by comparing solidification structure, suitable stirring parameters was confirmed; the effects of tubular corner size on cooling of bloom corner was analyzed by taken simulate calculate, and explore the effects of taper on the casting amount of steel by carried out experiment, parameters have been worked out and quality of bloom corner have been improved at last, convex hull of corner have been eliminated and zero defect for corner was realized, mean squared error of segregation degree at corner and solidified shell is not more than 0.010, better than combined mold remarkably.
Carburizing is the main damage form of ethylene cracking furnace tubes. In this process, the microstructure of the furnace tube would change and the element diffuses and redistributes. After serving for about 41000h, the radiation section of a plum blossom tube of SC-1 tubular cracking furnace from a petrochemical company was tested and analyzed in this article. Results show that the higher the service temperature, the more serious the carburizing of the furnace tube. In the inner-wall carburized zone of the middle temperature section of the furnace tube with an initial C content of 0.1wt%, the maximum C content reaches 1.83wt% and the number of carbides increases obviously as well as its organizational morphology changes from fine granular to coarse block or chain like and its organizational type changes from single M23C6 to the coexistence of M23C6, M7C3 and MC type carbides. The Cr and C elements in the carburized zone are mainly concentrated in the grain boundary area in the form of carbides. At the same time, the diffusion of alloy elements causes Cr deficiency in the matrix, and the carbide deficiency zone appears in the subsurface of the inner wall.
Through the observation of microstructure and crack morphology, the crack properties and causes of F92/Super304H dissimilar steel welding joint filled with ERNiCr-3 wire was analyzed. Results show the crack was distributed along the crystal and located between dendrites or subcrystals in the center or near the center of the 4th and 5th weld layers. Both dendrites with consistent direction and crystal cells formed on the free solidification surface can be observed on the crack surface. The crack can be identified as welding solidification crack because of its typical morphological characteristics of weld metal solidification crack. The reason for the crack was the weld width of the 4th and 5th layers with 16 ∼ 21mm and one weld bead for each layer. The wide weld bead caused the weld metal to stay at high temperature for a long time, and the weld metal generated coarse and developed dendrites with consistent direction. Elements such as Ni, Nb, Si and Ti have segregated between dendrites or subcrystals to form low melting point eutectic such as Ni-Nb and Ni-Si. Cracks were generated along dendrite grain boundaries or subcrystals because of the effect of solidification shrinkage strain. The inherent solidification crack sensitivity of nickel-based welding material and the factors of welding process were the main reasons for the crack.
This paper introduced the smelting process of Inconel600 nickel-ferrochrome alloy by medium frequency induction furnace. The smelting, forging, rolling and drawing process parameters of the alloy are determined by this study. By using nitrogen and oxygen analyzer, direct reading spectrometer, OEM, electronic probe and electronic universal material testing machine, the chemical composition, gas content, inclusions, internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the trial-produced products were analyzed. The results show that the Inconel600 nickel-ferrochrome product meets the national standard and the comprehensive performance of the product is good.
In this study, the tensile and stress rupture behavior were investigated on GH4151 alloy with different grain sizes. The test samples were obtained from turbine disk with different positions. The analysis of micro-structure, grain size, and fracture morphology were carried out by several typical characteristics way, indicating that the influence of grain size on tensile and stress rupture behavior is mainly affected by the number of grain boundary, which affects tensile and stress rupture behavior of the GH4151 superalloy. The tensile strength of fine-grained specimens are higher than tensile strength of coarse-grained specimens, and so is the plasticity. At the same test condition, stress rupture life reduced from 82.5 h to 33.5 h as the grain size decreased from 22.3 μm to 11.1 μm, which decreased by 59.4%. Moreover, the elongation rate increased from 6.60 % to 25.48 % as the grain size decreased, which increased by 286%.
According to the statistics of China Electricity Council, about 97% of China’s coal-fired power generating units adopted wet desulfurization process (WFGD), of which the limestone-gypsum wet desulfurization process is the main process, accounting for about 91% of coal generating units. Without GGH, chimney exports can form white smoke plume. To solve the problem of environmental protection of white smoke plume and boiler flue gas waste heat recovery, the heat exchanger will be applied in flue gas condensation. But, the SO2, CO2, HCl and other complex components in flue gas can lead to equipment serious corrosion, so, it is necessary to study the heat exchanger and chimney material’s corrosion resistance. In this paper, the natural corrosion experiments in the actual chimney condensate of 2205 duplex stainless steel, 2507 super duplex stainless steel, 316L austenitic stainless steel and TA2 materials were studied by hanging weight loss method and electrochemical method at different temperatures. The results show that: The existence of weld in stainless steel and TA2 will increase the corrosion tendency and corrosion rate of the material. In static immersion, the higher the temperature, the higher the corrosion rate; Corrosion rate is 2507<2205< TA2< 316L; In the presence of SO42- and F-, the oxide film of TA2 is destroyed and its corrosion resistance is reduced, which provides a certain reference for material selection of heat exchangers and chimneys.
Taking double-block ballastless track bed concrete as the object, the influences of low-heat Portland cement (P·LH) and normal Portland cement (P·O) on mechanical properties, adiabatic temperature rise, dry-shrinkage and cracking sensitivity of track bed concrete are studied. The results show that, the track bed concrete prepared with two types of cement can meet the design requirements of C40 concrete. It is also noticed that the strength development of the two is different. That is, the early strength development of track bed concrete with P·LH is lower and the lately strength development is slightly higher than that of concrete with P·O, the 3d and 56d compressive strength of track bed concrete with P·LH is 41% and 9% lower than that of the latter, and 5% higher than that of the latter at age 90d. P·LH can reduces the adiabatic temperature rise of track bed concrete, the 1d, 3d and 7d adiabatic temperature rise of track bed concrete with P·LH is 34%, 24% and 20% lower than that of concrete with P·O, respectively. P·LH can reduce the dry-shrinkage of track bed concrete significantly, the 1d and 3d dry-shrinkage value is 70% and 30% lower than that of concrete with P·O, respectively, and even at shrinkage development stable age with 180d, the dry-shrinkage of former is also slightly lower than the latter. Cracking sensitivity evaluated by the concrete ring test shows that, the cracking sensitivity of track bed concrete with P·LH is significantly decrease and no cracking occurred within 28d, but the concrete with P·O was cracked at age 10d.
In this paper, the preparation process of low viscosity light curing silicon oxide ceramic slurry and the properties of sintered samples were studied. By studying the effects of the type and concentration of dispersant and the solid content of ceramic powder on the viscosity and stability of slurry, silicon oxide ceramic slurry with low viscosity, high solid content and good stability was prepared. The properties of sintered samples of silicon oxide ceramics were verified by the compressive strength, shrinkage test and SEM observation. The results show that with stearic acid as dispersant, the mass fraction is 2wt % and the particle size of silicon powder is 10μm. When the solid content is 45wt%, the light curing ceramic slurry with the lowest viscosity and the most stable can be obtained. After curing, degreasing and sintering, the compressive strength of the SiO2 ceramic sample prepared with the optimized parameters is 70.01 MPa, and the average shrinkage is 94.67%. It has good performance. The silicon oxide grains are arranged orderly, the structure is dense.
Monitoring Pb2+ contentin drinking water is an important measure to safeguard water safety for residents. To overcome drawbacks available electrochemical sensors, this work attempts to fabricate a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for detecting Pb2+ in water. A systematic investigation was conducted on microstructural and electrochemical performances of BDD electrode. The results show that, diamond grains arrange well on BDD electrode surface. The electrode exhibits a high electrochemical active surface area and low charge transfer resistance, favorable to accelerate the stripping reaction process of Pb2+. BDD electrode has a low detection limit in optimized parameter set. Also, the BDD electrode has a good anti-interference ability. The designed BDD electrode is expected to be applicable for monitoring Pb2+ content in waters.
In order to prevent coal spontaneous combustion fire effectively, a new kind of fire-fighting material – gel foam was developed in this paper. The foaming volume and half-life of foaming agent at different concentrations were measured by ROSS-Miles. Four foaming agents with less dosage and higher foaming times were selected. Then different temperatures were set to test the temperature resistance of four foaming agents and record the foaming volume data. Through analyzing the experimental results, the three optimal foaming agents were selected for pairwise compounding. Through the compounding experiment, the compound foaming agent was prepared with mass fraction of 6‰ APG and AEC at a mass ratio of 4:3, and the foaming times reached 13 times. After the addition of foam stabilizer, the foaming times of the compound were up to 15 times at room temperature, and the glue forming time is 13min. The results show that the viscosity of gel foam decreases with the increase of temperature. The higher the temperature, the shorter the gelation time. The gel does not decompose at high temperatures.
Hydrogel is a kind of functional polymer material. Because of its excellent characteristics such as high-water absorption, biocompatibility and stimulus response, hydrogel is widely used in biological tissue engineering, drug-controlled release, wastewater treatment, chemical mechanical devices, household products and other fields. The traditional hydrogels often have some disadvantages, such as slow response rate and fragile, which limit the application range of hydrogels. In this paper, we prepared a photo curable hydrogel photothermal response driving material. Because PNIPAAm hydrogel has excellent thermal driving response effect, it will shrink when the temperature is higher than 32 °C, and gold nanoparticles are good photothermal response materials. Therefore, the hydrogel actuator can realize fast response driving, and has excellent photothermal response efficiency and good environmental adaptability. The research scheme is to first prepare gold nanoparticle sol with appropriate concentration, and then synthesize PNIPAAm /AuNPs nano hydrogel. Its performance was characterized by SEM, TEM and UV spectroscopy, and its driving performance was studied.
A novel green controlled synthesis method is proposed in this paper. Mesoporous alumina was prepared by using sodium aluminate extracted from red mud as an aluminum source. The influence mechanism of temperature, template agent and sodium aluminate concentration on MA properties was studied systematically. The results show that the prepared mesoporous γ-alumina has a good catalytic activity of short-range arrangement, medium acidity, narrow pore size distribution, thermal stability and hydrothermal stability. This economical and green synthesis method can also be used to prepare other mesoporous or porous materials.
Stress rupture experiments were performed on GH4151 nickel-based superalloy specimens. The microstructure analysis, fracture morphology analysis, and dislocation structure analysis were carried out. The results indicate that the life of the alloy decreased significantly with increasing temperature and stress. Furthermore, the microstructure evolution during stress rupture deformation was dislocation formed in γ channel, dislocation network, dislocation shearing into γ’ phases and stacking faults forming, extended stacking fault, and rafting γ’ phases. In high temperature, grain boundaries are easier to slide, dislocations are easy to accumulate during deformation, and the dislocations cut the γ’ phase and thus the strengthening effect is weakened, which makes the crack initiation and propagation earlier and the life of the alloy shorter. In addition, with the increasing stress, the enhancement of dislocation density and the rafting of γ’ phases becomes more obvious, which decrease strength of alloy and stress rupture life.
The unbound granule material (UGM) is widely applied as the base/subbase layer in pavement engineering. The poor quality of UGMs mainly result in differential settlement and fatigue failure of UGMs. This paper presents a laboratory investigation on the influence of the maximum particle size (MPS) of aggregates on the resilient modulus (MR) of UGMs. The repeated load triaxial tests were performed under different stress levels. Three nonlinear models were compared to describe the mechanical behavior of UGMs. The results show that the particle size plays a significant role in the MR of UGMs. When the MPS of UGMs increases from 19mm to 26.5mm, its dynamic MR increases by 6.8% on average. When the particle size increases from 26.5mm to 31.5mm, the dynamic MR increases by 13.3% on average. Meanwhile, the MR is also dependent on the deviatory stress and the confining pressure. The N37A model has a better goodness of fit than the others. In a word, it effects of the MPS should be taken into account in the pavement design, to make sure that the loading and deformation of pavement structure more uniform.
The internal structure of semi-flexible pavement (SFP) is prone to fatigue damage, which affects its service life. The cement mortar admixture has a crucial influence on the fatigue resistance of SFP. In order to explore and study the fatigue resistance performance of SFP, Waterborne Epoxy Resin, emulsified asphalt and Carboxyl Latex were selected as cement mortar admixtures to prepare special cement mortar, and the effect of admixtures on the fatigue resistance of SFP was evaluated by indirect tensile fatigue test. The tests show that Waterborne Epoxy Resin undermines the fatigue resistance of SFP, while emulsified asphalt and Carboxyl Latex can improve it.
A dense Al-SiCp nanocomposite coating with high volume fraction of nano SiCp reinforcement (60 vol.%) was fabricated through cold spraying deposition of milled Al-60SiCp nanocomposite powder in the present paper. Microstructure evolution of Al-SiCp nanocomposite powder during ball milling process, microstructure characteristics and hardness of sprayed Al-SiCp nanocomposite coating were studied. Al particles underwent fracture deformation and nano SiC particles were evenly distributed in the soft Al base material after ball milling. Dense Al-SiCp composite coating had been successfully prepared through cold spraying solidification of the milled nanocomposite powder. Nano SiC particles uniformly distributed in the as-sprayed Al-SiCp composites coating. Microhardness of Al-SiCp nanocomposite coating was highly reach up to 530±53 Hv0.3 compared to 34±3 Hv0.3 for the pure Al bulk.
Ladle refractories were subject to repeated chemical erosion and physical scouring by various hot fluids such as steel slag, liquid steel, argon and oxygen. Firstly, the heat transfer model of ladle wall was established, the heat transfer of ladle refractory under different corrosion conditions was analyzed. The relationship between the residual thickness of ladle lining refractory and the temperature field of the outer surface of ladle was established. Secondly, a set of infrared thermal imaging ladle outer wall temperature monitoring system was used to measure the ladle outer wall temperature, especially the slag line temperature. The changes of ladle outer surface temperature field under different corrosion conditions and different process conditions were analyzed. Finally, based on the support vector regression (SVR) model, the residual thickness prediction model of ladle refractory was designed. Combined with the ladle surface temperature and steelmaking production process conditions, the residual thickness of ladle refractory corrosion was predicted. The experiment results showed that the prediction accuracy of ladle refractory corrosion reaches 92%, which met the requirements of steelmaking plant for ladle safety monitoring in green and intelligent production.
The ceramic oxide coatings on aluminum alloys for marine construction were formed through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process with CTAB and SDBS surfactants in the original electrolyte solution. The composition, structure and some properties such as tribological behaviour and corrosion of alumina coatings were studied with different SDBS concentration varying from 0 to 0.2g/L (0,0.05,0.1,0.2g/L) in the electrolyte. The results show that the concentration of SDBS surfactant greatly influences the properties of MAO coating. The alumina coating surface becomes denser and thicker by adding SDBS surfactant in the electrolyte. Besides, the optimum concentration of the SDBS surfactant in the electrolyte to achieve the ceramic coating with a desirable thickness and consequently a desirable corrosion performance is 0.1 g/L.
Aluminum matrix composite (AMC) reinforced with in-situ Fe2Al5 intermetallics particles was prepared through annealing treatment of the cold-sprayed Al/Fe composite precursor with an Al/Fe weight ratio of 85:15. The deformation characteristics of Al and Fe particles in cold spraying process and the effect of heat treatment temperature on the in-situ Fe2Al5 intermetallics formation and the morphology evolution were investigated. The results showed that the cold-sprayed Al/Fe composite deposit had a dense microstructure and its composition was nearly same as that of original powder mixture, and soft Al particles exhibited the significantly intensive deformation compared to Fe particles, which caused the elongation of Al grains. The Fe2Al5 intermetallics were formed and uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix after annealing at 500°C. The content of Fe2Al5 phase increased with raising annealing temperature and Fe particles in Al/Fe composite were fully consumed by diffusion alloying reaction with Al matrix above 550°C and simultaneously the fragmentation of Fe2Al5 intermetallics particles occurred.
In order to improve the mechanical properties of B4C ceramics, B4C@TiB2 composite powders with core-shell structure are prepared by molten salt method using B4C and Ti powders as raw materials. And B4C ceramics were prepared from B4C@TiB2 composite powders by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the B4C@TiB2 composite powders exhibit intact core-shell structure. The B4C@TiB2 composite powders improves the mass transfer during spark plasma sintering. When the molar ratio of B4C/Ti is 2/1, the relative density, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength of the BT1/2 sample are 94.2%, 26.9 GPa, 5.34 MPa·m1/2 and 570 MPa, respectively, which is best comprehensive properties.