Ebook: ISMR 2020
In many countries, the development of railway science is of great significance to both the economy and society, and transdisciplinary studies involving railways and other fields has also become more important in recent years.
This book presents the proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Innovation & Sustainability of Modern Railway (ISMR 2020), held in Nanchang, China from 23 - 25 October 2020. The symposium has been held biennially since 2008 and is principally aimed at expanding the scientific partnership between Russian and Chinese transport universities in the field of railway transportation. It is organized in a collaboration between the Federal Railway Transport Agency, Irkutsk State Transport University (IrGUPS) and East China Jiaotong University, and enables scientists from Russia, China and Mongolia to come together to discuss breakthrough technologies, as well as the problems of innovation in the secure operation of modern railways. Despite the disruption caused by the global pandemic, 89 submissions were received for the 2020 edition, 38 of which were selected after review for presentation and publication here. These comprise 12 papers dealing with railways and mechanics, 20 covering railways and computer sciences, and 6 related to railways and management, together with the 2 contributions of the invited keynote speakers (professor Xiaoyan Lei, principle of East China Jiaotong University, and professor Erol Guler from George Mason University).
The book provides an insight into new ideas and developments in the industry, and will be of interest to all railway practitioners.
The 7th International Symposium on Innovation & Sustainability of Modern Railway (ISMR 2020) was scheduled on Oct. 23rd to 25th. We are proud to have Prof. Xiaoyan LEI, the principle of East China Jiaotong University, and Prof. Erol GULER from George Mason University to be the keynote speakers.
Special thanks to China Academy of Railway Sciences, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, and Southwest Jiaotong University, for their active participation to the conference. They are among the top research institutes in the field of railway sciences in China and presentations from them can represent the mainstream of recent railway studies.
In this special year under the influence of global pandemic, we have received 89 submissions and the review work has lasted for four months since May. With the help of TPC members and reviewers, 38 articles including two works from keynote speakers were included in the proceedings, with 12 articles talking about Railway & Mechanics, 20 articles focusing on Railway & Computer Sciences and 6 articles related to Railway & Management.
This collection aims to provide experiences and bring new ideas to railway practitioners. Development of railway science is of great significance to both economy and society. We can see that transdisciplinary study between railway and other subject has become a trend in future study.
Significant investments are being made towards enhancing the reach of the railway infrastructure due to the vast economic benefits it brings. An inevitable consequence of the expansion of the rail network is the soft soil conditions encountered in the alignment. Geosynthetic encased columns (GEC) is a proven ground improvement technology which can be adapted as soil remediation technique for such conditions. In this paper, first an introduction to the concept of GECs will be given. Then the recent advances in the academic research on the GECs will be elaborated. As it is known, earthquakes are one of the most devastating disasters and certainly also have a major effect on transportation infrastructure. In this paper results of shaking table tests to compare ordinary stone columns and GECs behavior under earthquake loading conditions will also be presented. The brief recap of the state of the art on the geosynthetic encased columns including their earthquake behavior will be followed by case studies on three major projects where the site conditions and project requirements will be discussed. The significant benefits of geosynthetic encased columns in relation to project requirements will also be elaborated.
Vibration and noise problems of elevated track bridge structures are becoming increasingly prominent. In order to effectively control the low-frequency vibration response of the track box girder structure. Firstly, the controlled mode is confirmed through modal analysis of the box girder. The optimal stiffness, damping and attaching position of the tuned mass dampers are obtained based on the fixed-point theory and the identification method of equivalent quality for multi-degree-of-freedom system. Then, based on the vehicle-track-bridge coupling dynamic model, the control effectiveness of tuned mass dampers to low-frequency vibration of the track box girder structure under train moving load is discussed. The results show that the reasonable multi-mode modal tuned mass dampers combination can effectively suppress the low-frequency vibrations of the box-girder, and the vibration levels in the frequency bands 5–10 Hz and 20–31.5 Hz near the natural frequency are significantly reduced.
A high-speed railway loess tunnel being built is in the Shallow-Buried Section because the construction party violates the design, and the slag discarded at the top of the tunnel is just down-pressing the main line. In order to ensure that the stability of tunnel structure does not affect the safe operation in the later period, a stratum structure model is established based on non-destructive testing and on-site tunnel monitoring measurement. The parameters of surrounding rock are determined by displacement back analysis method, and the influence of waste slag on the safety of tunnel structure is checked by the parameters obtained from back analysis. Through the comparative analysis of the stress of tunnel lining under two working conditions, combined with relevant codes and design documents, it is considered that the slag has a great influence on the stress of tunnel lining structure, but the sectional strength and maximum crack width of eccentrically compressed components of tunnel lining meet the design requirements, and the structure is within the safety range.
In order to make different strength grades of concrete which meet the requirements of the complex engineering environment of China-Laos (Moding-Vientiane) Railway, the raw materials such as cement fabricated in Laos and water reducing agent made in China were chosen, the effect rules of size and the effect rules of different fly ash contents on the mechanical properties of C55 concrete were studied through the concrete mix proportion design and the mechanical property tests of different strength index. And the concrete mix proportion of C20∼C60 was determined. The results showed that the concrete which meet the requirements of China railway standards (TB10424-2010) can be configured according to the mix proportion in this paper. In the case of the additive is fly ash only, the appropriate content of fly ash in C55 concrete for China-Laos (Moding-Vientiane) Railway bridges was determined to be 15%. The test results in this paper had been successfully applied to the concrete construction of real bridges.
With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the shield tunneling method used to construct new subways across existing high-speed railway bridges often occurs. In this paper, under the combined action of the double-track construction of a shield tunnel in a certain project and the train load, railway pile foundation from the deformation of the bridge pier and the settlement of the pile foundation. The vertical displacement distribution law analyzes the impact of shield construction and train load on the pile foundation of the existing bridge, and at the same time evaluates the safety of the bridge accordingly. The results show that the deformation of the existing bridge caused by the shield tunneling construction and the train load mainly affects the initial excavation stage. With the excavation, the settlement value gradually stabilizes, and the settlement of the bridge decreases slightly when the left line tunneling is completed. The shield tunneling of the right line has a certain compensation effect on the left line, and the overall settlement value of the bridge pile foundation is in a stable state.
With the rapid development of the Sino-Russian railway, in order to study the influence of track lateral irregularities on the deformation of seamless turnouts in alpine regions, a nonlinear finite element model of the spatial track frame was established to study the influence of track lateral irregularities on the stability of seamless turnouts. By setting parameters, the effects of temperature changes, lateral irregularities in the switch part, and lateral irregularities in the guide curve on the stability of the seamless turnout are studied. The results show that the greater the temperature change, the greater the lateral displacement. By comparing various working conditions, it can be concluded that when the curved rail of the guide curve part has lateral deviation, the seamless turnout will have a large lateral deformation, and the lateral displacement of the straight basic rail has a more obvious increase.
A non-contact electrical resistivity measurement device was employed to indicate the early hardening process of cement asphalt emulsified mortar (CA mortar). It was found that this process was analogous with the hydration process of cement and could be categorized into three parts: dissolving period, induction period and setting period. The mortar resistivity first decreased and then increased with the elapsed time. The effect of water/cement ratio (W/C), asphalt emulsified/cement ratio (A/C), cement types were also explored. Results indicated that the increase of W/C, dosages in SF (Silica fume) extended the induction period; replacement of Portland cementII with sulfoaluminate cement in CA mortar markedly increased the electrical resistivity and advanced the onset of setting period by 5∼6 h, making it possible to prepare CA mortar with high early strength, which can preventing distress such as peeling and bleeding during construction in winter and conformance to requirements in acceptance standard.
In this paper, a 350 km/h high-speed train is taken as the research object. Using the realizable k-ε model to calculate the steady-state flow field around the train, based on the results, calculating aerodynamic noise source of the train body surface by using the broadband noise model. The drag, lift and acoustic data of the train with the non-smooth surface units arranged on different positions of the vehicle are analyzed and compared, so as to analyze the influence of the layout of the non-smooth surface units on the drag reduction and noise reduction of the train. The simulation results show that when the non-smooth surface units are arranged in the bogie area, the aerodynamic resistance of the head and the intermediate vehicle can be effectively reduced, with the drag reduction effect of 12.2% in the head vehicle and 26.9% in the intermediate vehicle; when the non-smooth surface units are arranged on the nose of the train, for the intermediate vehicle, the drag reduction effect is 9.3%, and 11.5% when arranged on the transition area; when the non-smooth surface units are arranged on the nose of the train, there are quite a number of scattered points of low surface acoustic power in the streamline area of the tail vehicle, in which the lowest surface acoustic power level is only 50 dB, which is 25.3% lower than that of the train without non-smooth surface units.
The data obtained from a field test of irregularity of rail surface in Hu-Kun line, a CWR track, is processed by statistical analysis of maximum amplitude and one-third octave analysis. The result shows that the regularities of rail surface in joint areas of CWR track are worse in common. In general, the amplitudes of rail surface irregularities can get beyond 0.5mm/m, which exceed standard values in every wave length ranges, and the maximum of them can reach 15dB. The conditions of rail surface regularities in non-joint areas are better, and the rail surface irregularities from most of the test points are lower than 0.15mm/m, which do not exceed standard values.
In order to study the influence of the position of without braking function on the safety of empty freight trains, a dynamic model of the locomotive and vehicle-track coupling system was established based on the theory of vehicle system dynamics and the theory of train-track coupling dynamics. And the safety indicators of the empty freight train’s lateral wheelset force, derailment coefficient, and wheel unloading rate were analyzed and compared with the dynamic safety indicators of the empty freight trains with normal braking function, while the vehicles without braking function located in the front, middle and rear parts of the freight train. The results show that during the service brake conditions, whether there are vehicles without braking function or not, the safety performance of the empty freight train is not much different, and all meet the requirements of the GB5599-2019 standard, the safety performance of the vehicles without braking function is not significantly different from that of the normal vehicles, the lateral wheelset force and the derailment coefficient are slightly greater than those in other parts while the vehicles without braking function located at the front part of the train, and the dynamic performance is not much different when the vehicles without braking function located in the middle and rear of the train.
Based on Hertz elastic contact theory, elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory, the equivalent radial stiffness model of roller raceway contact pair of logarithmic modified tapered roller bearing is derived under the consideration of oil film stiffness. The calculation results show that the equivalent radial contact stiffness increases with the increase of contact load, increases linearly with the increase of effective contact length of roller, and changes little with the increase of modification f1. When the radial load is small, the oil film has a great influence on the equivalent radial stiffness, which decreases gradually with the increase of the radial load.
Based on the measured irregularity data of Shanghai rail transit 11# line, firstly from the angle of time domain the amplitude stability and amplitude distribution characteristics of the rail surface short wave irregularity whose wavelengths are in the range of 0.01 ∼ 1 m are analyzed. Secondly from the point of view of frequency domain by using the maximum entropy spectrum method the short wave power spectral density is estimated. Then the power spectral density curves are compared with the short spectrum of Wang Lan and Sato and the different track structure effects on the states of the rail surface irregularities are also analyzed. The research show that the amplitude distribution of track surface short wave irregularity is close to the normal distribution. And the maximum amplitudes of some sections in Jiading Xincheng – Malu and Nanxiang – Taopu saemaul undong exceed 2.0mm. In the section of Liziyuan-Shanghai West Railway Station, the power spectral density curves of track structure with the supporting block, DTIII-2 type fasteners and with the conventional integral track bed are also similar to that of Sato spectrum. And it is obviously superior to that of other track structures in this section.
In railway networks, metal objects near the balise transmission system can affect the performance of antennas in the system operating at 27.095 MHz and 4.23 MHz. In this paper, the performance of the antennas in the proximity of steel rails and metal plates are simulated and tested in terms of resonant frequency, magnetic field distribution. The results show that the metal effect is dependent on the distance between the metal and the antenna. They shift the resonant frequency and change the magnetic field distribution. In order to solve the problem, we find that the antennas should keep specified distance with the steel rails. Also, a metal plate is fixed on the back of on-board antenna unit to reduce the sensitivity to metal. These methods increase the robustness and reliability of balise transmission system antennas in railway signalling.
In order to study the energy-saving operation of high-speed trains, the energy consumption of trains is taken as the goal, and the speed at the transition point of the operating conditions is the optimization variable, an artificial bee colony algorithm is used to optimize the speed curve across the entire line, the purpose is to obtain the first stage optimization speed curve. On this basis, the conditions of the actual running line are fully considered, and the predictive control algorithm is used to optimize the local prediction of the speed, the purpose is to obtain the second stage optimization speed curve. The simulation results show that compared with the energy consumption in the time-saving mode, the energy consumption after the second prediction optimization is reduced by 19.29%. It is verified that the secondary speed curve obtained by the combination of the global artificial bee colony algorithm and the predictive control algorithm has better performance in energy saving effect. This paper can provide good reference value and practical significance for the energy-saving operation of other vehicles.
Debris flow causes huge casualties and economic losses to railway construction and transportation every year, so it is of great significance to analyze the severity of debris flow to reduce the loss. For the debris flow hazards severity analysis, an integrated approach based on G1-ANP was proposed. Firstly, under the condition of the environmental risk, induced conditional risk, and vulnerability risk, the 16 index factors have been selected, for example, the degree of slope, land use type, flow accumulation, and annual mean rainfall. Then, considering the interaction among risk factors, a multi-level G1-ANP risk factor structure model has been established based on the criteria of buried capacity, impact velocity, and scouring distance (or area) of debris flow and the solution process of the model was described. Finally, the risk severity and the proportion of the various risks for each section were calculated using the weighted method. The analysis results are shown in the improved radar chart. The results show that the overall severity of debris flow in the Chengkang railway is not very high. The results can provide a reference for the management of debris flow hazards prevention and reduce the losses caused by hazards in railway operation.
Aiming at the problems of uneven illumination, low contrast and serious noise interference in subway tunnel images, an adaptive median filtering algorithm based on regional differences is proposed to improve noise detection and noise filtering. The algorithm first used the filter window set in advance by the algorithm to detect and determined the noise point by calculating the gray difference in the window. Then it is only filtered by the effective pixels are median-calculated in the template. The result is output as the gray value in the center of the window. Compared with the traditional median, mean and adaptive median filtering algorithms, the proposed new algorithm can effectively filter out noise while reducing the difficulty of subsequent segment recognition.
C3+ATO system plays an important role in controlling train operation and its function is related to the safety of train automatic operation. A simulation and verification method based on timed automata is proposed to verify the function of high-speed railway C3+ATO system. The functional requirements in the C3+ATO system specification are extracted and the timed automata models are established and then the timed automata network model is formed. The message sequence charts are generated and system safety, reachability, existence are verified. As a result, the models meet the functional requirements of the system which provide theoretical reference for the subsequent C3+ATO system design and development, test and measurement, practical application and related specification improvement.
Based on the dynamic simulation model, the dynamic response index of vehicle system under the action of track irregularity is divided into three areas: repair, deterioration and maintenance. The correlation between the track irregularity index and the dynamic response index domain of vehicle system components is calculated and statistically studied. The estimation model of dynamic response index domain of vehicle system and the domain boundaries of different dynamic response indexes are established and obtained Line. According to the principle of single variable method, the excitation source of vehicle track system is divided into track irregularity and other comprehensive factors (such as temperature load, material damage, etc.), and a simple inversion method of track foundation state is proposed based on the estimation model of dynamic response index domain. Its basic principle is: if the statistical characteristics of track irregularity remain unchanged and other influencing factors change, the estimation domain and measurement domain of dynamic response index will produce grade jump, so as to determine whether the basic state of the line is normal. The simulation results show that the accuracy of domain estimation of dynamic response index of vehicle system is more than 80%, and the accuracy of recognition is more than 70% for the damage condition of the line infrastructure, where the fastener is empty.
Taking environmental concerns into consideration, a logistics distribution center location-route multi-objective optimization model and its solving algorithm are studied in multi-modal transport network context. The objective functions in the model include total operation cost, delivery time and carbon emission goals. The model’s decision variables are product volumes with different transport modes and the constraints concerned with investment budget, limited capacity etc. Aimed at the model structure, a two-stage heuristic solving algorithm for single objective model is put forward and its validity is proved. On the basis of solutions which are searched by the heuristic solving algorithm, an optimal solution is obtained using one of multi-objective evaluation methods. Finally, a large scale multi-modal distribution network example is provided to illustrate feasibility and effectiveness of the model and the algorithm by comparing solving efficiency and results, and it finds a railway-based multi-modal transport network has the most competitive advantage.
Railway inspection and maintenance in uninhabited high-cold areas are facing great challenges according to the rapid development of Sino-Russian railway. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed, which is image edge detection track structure recognition and damage detection based on improved convolution model. This paper use image acquisition method and improved two-dimensional convolution to image filtering, thus the original image matrix is processed by determinant transformation to enhance image boundary elements. On the basis of the linear characteristics obtained from edge detection, the fastener cartridge and steel rails are identified. The damage and position of steel rails are judged by the sharp change of alignment. The image recognition and verification of the existing railway demonstrates that the method has the following advantages: It improves the rate of recognition structure and has certain adaptability. At the same time, the corresponding position of the structure can be determined, which is beneficial to the identification of structural damage. Besides, it plays an important role in the daily operation and maintenance of track.
Along with the proposal of the Belt and Road initiative, the Eurasian railway lines with China and Russia as the center are entering a new era of strategic coordination. Thus, carrying out digital location design with modern mapping information technology has become a necessary means for improving railway locating efficiency and quality. Employing the GIS-based large 3D strip terrain modeling approach and its application, the present study takes consideration in factors such as slope, relief, geological disasters, and locating-influencing surface features so as to construct the most economically efficient routes and form the optimal GIS-based plans and decisions. Specific railway lines undergo BIM locating design with an integrated use of Civil 3D and Infraworks360 software. Line modeling and earthwork calculation are conducted in the Civil 3D-based terrain curvature. Moreover, line model is imported into Infraworks360 to achieve a 3D roaming demonstration. A 3D visualized implementation of railway location design is made possible using GIS+BIM approach that improves locating efficiency and design quality.
Vehicle on-board equipment is the most important train control equipment in high-speed railways. Due to the low efficiency and accuracy of manual detection, in this paper, we propose an intellectualized fault diagnosis method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) network. Firstly, we collect the fault information sheets that are recorded by electrical personnel, using frequency weighting factor and principal component analysis (PCA) to realize the data extraction and dimension reduction; Then, in order to improve the fault diagnosis rate of the model, using genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the parameters of the ANFIS network; Finally, using the fault data of a high-speed railway line in 2019 to test the model, the optimized ANFIS model can achieve 96% fault diagnosis rate for vehicle on-board equipments, which indicating the method is effective and accurate.