Ebook: New Materials, Machinery and Vehicle Engineering
Scientists and engineers are working constantly to develop and improve the materials, machines and vehicles that are part of all our daily lives, and keeping abreast of advances in these fields is important to all those engaged in such efforts.
This book presents the proceedings of NMMVE 2023, the 2nd International Conference on New Materials, Machinery, and Vehicle Engineering, held in Guiyang, China, from 2 - 4 June 2023. The conference brings together researchers, academics, and industrial professionals from around the world to discuss the latest advancements in the fields of new materials, machinery, and vehicle engineering. A total of 149 submissions were received for presentation at the conference, of which 57 were ultimately accepted after a rigorous three-part single blind review process. A wide variety of topics is covered in the papers, which are divided into 3 categories: machinery, new materials, and vehicle engineering.
The book provides a valuable overview of the latest developments and breakthroughs, and will be of interest to all researchers and professionals working in the fields of new materials, machinery, and vehicle engineering.
The 2nd International Conference on New Materials, Machinery, and Vehicle Engineering (NMMVE 2023) was successfully held in Guiyang, China, from 2–4 June 2023. It is with great pleasure that we present the proceedings of this conference, which brought together researchers, scholars, and industrial professionals from around the world to discuss the latest advancements in the addressed fields.
First and foremost, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Zhenkun Lei, from Dalian University of Technology (China), for his invaluable support and guidance throughout the conference. His expertise and dedication have been instrumental in making this event a resounding success.
Furthermore, we would like to acknowledge the esteemed professors who delivered keynote speeches and contributed significantly to the conference. Prof. Miriam Rafailovich, from Stony Brook University (USA), Prof. Yung C. Shin, from Purdue University (USA), Prof. Qigang Han, from Jilin University (China), and Assoc. Prof. Jinyang Xu, from Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China). Your insightful presentations enriched our understanding and stimulated meaningful discussion in the field of new materials, machinery, and vehicle engineering.
In addition, we would like to express our gratitude to the distinguished speakers who delivered special reports during the workshops. Prof. Xizhong An, from Northeastern University (China), Prof. Song Xiang, from Guizhou University (China), Assoc. Prof. Haitao Fu, from Northeastern University (China), and Assoc. Prof. Jingfei Yin, from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Your contributions provided valuable insights and perspectives, enhancing the overall quality of the conference.
We would also like to extend our appreciation to the members of the organizing committee, the technical program committee, the session chairs, and to all the reviewers for their tireless efforts in ensuring the selection of high-quality papers and the smooth operation of the conference.
Lastly, we would like to thank all those participants who joined us in Guiyang for their active engagement and valuable contributions. Your presence and participation made this conference a vibrant platform for knowledge exchange and collaboration.
We hope that the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on New Materials, Machinery, and Vehicle Engineering will serve as a valuable resource for researchers and professionals in these fields, inspiring further advancements and breakthroughs.
Assoc. Prof. Jinyang Xu, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Prof. J. Paulo Davim, University of Aveiro, Portugal
In recent years, inorganic flexible electronics technology has been widely researched as a promising field that enables semiconductor devices to combine excellent electrical and flexible properties for various electronic applications. However, rigid semiconductor materials are susceptible to fracture during service, leading to functional failure. Therefore, mechanical reliability testing is essential for these devices. Digital photoelasticity is one of the techniques that can be used for stress analysis of semiconductor materials, which is a non-destructive, full-field, real-time experimental method based on photoelasticity. In this paper, a transmission-reflection photoelastic combined technique is proposed for internal stress analysis of inorganic flexible electronic bilayer structures. This technique can achieve non-contact, in-situ, parallel measurement of internal stress fields. A transmission-reflection photoelastic bidirectional combined experimental system is developed. A photoelastic parameter extraction technique for stress decoupling of bilayer structures is introduced. An experimental study on the quantitative characterization of the internal stress field of each layer is conducted for a typical class of inorganic flexible electronic bilayer structures.
Aluminum alloys have been extensively used in aerospace, machinery, transportation, and other industries due to their superior strength, relatively low weight, and outstanding thermal conductivity. High-speed cutting (HSC) and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) techniques have been widely applied for the machining of aluminum alloys. This paper investigates numerically the influences of various geometrical tools on the cutting behaviors, in particular, the cutting forces/temperature of aluminum alloys. The effects of the rake angle and the friction coefficient are examined by simulations based on the orthogonal cutting mode. The findings of the numerical analysis may guide the design of cutting tools in high-speed MQL cutting for aluminum alloys.
Torsional fretting behavior of TC4 titanium alloy has been investigated at different fretting parameters to explore the fretting wear resistance and wear mechanisms of titanium alloy. The fretting loops, dissipated friction energy and friction torque under different normal load (100N and 200N), angular displacement (±0.5° and ±2°) and frequency (10Hz and 15Hz) were studied to reveal the mechanical behavior during fretting. Results showed that normal load made difference in friction torque while angular displacement was the most important factor in dissipated friction energy. And fretting ran in gross slip regime under the above fretting parameters. Surface morphology of fretting scars was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The shape of fretting scars was hourglass, appearing narrow and shallow in the middle, wide and deep on both sides. The section profiles of the fretting scars were shape of “V”. Besides, wear depth and wear volume increased under larger normal load and angular displacement. SEM images depicted that adhesive wear, delamination and fatigue occurred during fretting.
Simulation of linear elasticity problems is widely applied in mechanical and architectural engineering, and surrogate models driven by sample data have become an effective approach to perform fast simulation. However, due to the scarce and expensive data in engineering, traditional data-driven surrogate models suffer from low accuracy. This paper proposes a new Physics Informed Surrogate Model (PISM), with the objective to accelerate the numerical simulation of linear elasticity problems. The governing equations are incorporated into the training process of neural networks as effective supplement information to sample data, which improves the prediction accuracy of surrogate models in small data scenarios. A ResNet structure is introduced to further improve predicting performance of the model. Experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of PISM is significantly higher than that of pure data-driven surrogate models under small data conditions, and the solving speed reaches 8–9 times that of the finite element method.
For the traditional underwater acoustic release device with complex structure, large volume and mass, and difficult dynamic sealing in deep-sea high-pressure environment, a novel piezoelectric actuator for deep-sea release function is proposed. The actuator consists of a piezoelectric composite stator and rotor, and is based on the basic principles of inverse piezoelectric effect and friction transmission, which achieves the separation and release between the stator and rotor through the rotational bending motion coupled by two-phase bending vibration. The proposed actuator adopts a simple and compact structure, is easy to control, reduces the volume and weight of the entire release system, and increases its reliability in deep-sea environments by allowing the friction-driven interface to be directly in contact with seawater, eliminating the need for dynamic seals. First, a three-dimensional solid model of the actuator was established through structural dynamics analysis, and its driving principle was theoretically analyzed. The equation of the elliptical motion trajectory of the stator’s driving mass point was derived. Then, finite element modal simulation and analysis were performed on the piezoelectric composite stator, and the structural parameters of the stator were optimized based on the design requirements of frequency consistency and distance from adjacent interference modes. Finally, the amplitude-frequency characteristics, working mode shape, and driving mass point motion trajectory of the stator were analyzed through finite element harmonic response simulation. This paper proposes a novel deep-sea release piezoelectric actuator, which offers a fresh idea for advancing deep-sea release devices technology.
Object detection performs a vital function in numerous domains. In contemporary object detection frameworks, multiple detection heads are a crucial element. Multi-performance head improvement is mostly attributable to the employment of many heads to detect objects of different sizes, but this also results in significant computing usage. Moreover, not all heads need to participate in the detecting process for every image. We first investigate the correlation between the number of heads and computing consumption, explore how to determine whether a detection head is in charge of detecting an object, and propose a dynamic head network for detection (DH-Net), which according to the input photographs, adaptively pick which heads to make predictions. As a result, the technique can accomplish more effective dynamic reasoning and a better balance between detection accuracy and computing expense. DH-Net allows the model to lower the number of parameters by up to 34% while still maintaining comparable accuracy, according to a series of controlled trials in the TT100K datasets. Moreover, it has the effect of speeding up training for redundant models.
Thin plates constitute more than 80% of the structural components in shipbuilding, and butt welding is an essential technological process in ship manufacturing. Different from general butt welding, thin plate welding for shipbuilding is characterized by long length (≥ 15 m), narrow seam width (≤ 1 mm), and high precision demands (≤ 0.5 mm). The clamping deformation, arc sparks, and noise pollution during the welding seriously affect the tracking precision in automated welding. To address this problem, this paper presents a seam tracking algorithm combining image processing techniques and spatiotemporal tracking data filtering techniques to acquire a steady and smooth torch trajectory with less position variation. In the image processing stage, a spatiotemporal density mask image processing method is proposed to preserve effective pixels in spatiotemporal laser images to resist noises and improve the accuracy of welding point position estimation. Experimental results show that the frequency of the proposed seam tracking method can reach 30 Hz, the average absolute tracking error is less than 0.25 mm, and the maximum tracking error is less than 0.4 mm. The welding torch runs more smoothly during welding thus leading to higher welding quality.
Atmosphere-Breathing Electric Propulsion (ABEP) is an international research focus. ABEP systems work in very low earth orbit (VLEO) can realize orbit maintenance of spacecrafts with little or no fuel. In this field, radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma (RF-ICP) thrusters can solve the problems of electrode corrosion and produce a dense plasma under thin atmosphere condition of VLEO. In this research, a RF-ICP source for the thruster configuration is designed, and a multi-physical coupling model is established. A complete simulation process is constructed to analyze the spatial distribution of the particles (e, N+, N2+, N, N2, N2S) in the RF-ICP. The results show that the particles in RF-ICP are axisymmetric in space, the electrons are mainly constrained in the central region of the ionization chamber by the magnetic field, and the plasma region expands and the electron density increases with the increase of the coil power. The other particles (N+, N2+, N, N2, N2S) are mainly distributed near the chamber wall as reactants or products of the surface reactions. And the distribution range of particles has a certain negative correlation with the electron energy required for excitation.
As the demand for large loads such as oversized cameras, antennas, and robotic arms continues to increase, the assembly tasks of medium-sized and large satellites have shown explosive growth. Compared to small satellites, their assembly is more difficult, their development cycle is longer, and they occupy more resources, placing higher requirements on the accessibility, accuracy, efficiency, and other aspects of measurement projects. This paper studies the benchmark establishment method suitable for multi-platform satellite structure assembly, analyzes the impact of the issue of “evaluating large size products with small size benchmarks” on satellite structure assembly measurement data in principle, and studies the “one point plus two vectors” coordinate construction method using the horizontal adjustment function of the instrument itself and the assembly platform transfer device in combination with the assembly process status of the rotary table and the satellite assembly bracket, The principle and implementation process of the method were analyzed and elaborated, and field tests were conducted to verify it. Through theoretical analysis and comparison of data results, the proposed benchmark establishment method was evaluated and optimized.
In response to the crack failure of a drive shaft of a type of motor subjected to high torque after a long period of overload operation, a remanufacturing study was conducted using laser cladding technology. In this paper, the remanufactured material was designed from the material composition of the motor drive shaft and the processing parameters were optimized. The results show that the Ni-Cr alloy powder was selected as the cladding material, and a cladding layer with good bonding properties, Excellent macroscopic morphology and mechanical properties were fabricated on the 30Cr alloy substrate via laser cladding technology under the parameters of laser power 2400 W, sweep speed 16 mm/s and powder feed rate 16 g/min., which can effectively extend the life of this motor drive shaft. The life of the motor drive shaft was effectively extended. The remanufacturing of the motor drive shaft not only saves resources but also improves the operation and maintenance efficiency of the motor.
In order to reduce the difference of the vibration response between the finite element simulation model and the actual physical model, the parameter modification method for the finite element simulation model of rolling bearings is proposed. Firstly, the finite element simulation models of normal bearings with different clearances are created, and their vibration responses are obtained. Secondly, a joint credibility analysis method based on kurtosis and margin factors is proposed, and the optimal bearing clearance is obtained. Finally, a bearing fault simulation model is established based on optimizing the bearing clearance. The results show that the matching degree between the simulated vibration response and the actual vibration response has been improved.
Piezoresistive sensors made of graphene and PDMS have excellent performance, its piezoresistive response is a crucial index. In this study, a homogenization modeling method is proposed to simulate the piezoresistive behavior of graphene/PDMS composites, and to better analyze the nonlinear response of the resistance of graphene sensor under large deformation. The simulation results show that with the increase of graphene content, the elastic modulus of graphene/PDMS composite increases, and its linear piezoresistive response stage also extends accordingly.
Optimal arrangement of damping materials is an important problem in vibration control of thin walled structure treated with constrained layer damping, which directly affects vibration energy dissipation and global energy flow distribution. In this thesis, an evolutionary topology optimization method is used to establish the optimization model for constrained layer damping processing panel, with the optimization goal of maximizing the modal loss factor and limiting the usage of damping material. Taking into account the sensitivity of modal shapes, based on an improved modal superposition method, the sensitivity of the objective function with respect to the design variables is obtained. The level set function constructed from the node sensitivity determines the implicit smooth structure topology of the restricted damping layer. Numerical examples suggest that the algorithm is feasible, correct and valid. Studies show that this method not only allows the objective function to converge stably to the optimal value, but also obtains smooth and clear boundaries.
Steaming potential is an electrical phenomenon caused by the flow of liquid along a solid surface. In order to adapt to the more complex environment and meet the higher requirements, the electrochemical response of flexible tube under external load may lay a foundation for the research of new sensor. Reasonable design of flexible tube and electrode structure, built a suitable measurement system to measure its electrical response. The results show that the frequency of the electrical signal fluctuates with the load fluctuation, and it has the characteristics of frequency doubling at higher values.
Stability might be the other important target besides power efficiency. At this work, we focus on examining air dynamic stability of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). While our aim is on stability, we will consider it in instability aspect, specifically by measuring turbulence. The quantities are including turbulence kinetic energy, intensity, dissipation and production. Three representative airfoils have been selected, which are NACA0012, NACA23012 and NACA2412. The turbulence generated around these airfoils would be compared at different stages of running, at TSR of 0, 2, 5 and 7. Every position of the airfoil is taken into account, 360 degrees with interval of 5. Here we will apply static analysis instead of transient one because we attempt to eliminate some other effect of air flow in the meantime acquiring higher computation accuracy. At first, we would scrutinize some fundamental principles of turbulence theory. The theory is based on the structure of statistics. Unfolded, there is the kinetic energy equation that leads to the basic quantities mentioned above. Each quantity has certain meaning and role in turbulence. Then we will resent the computation method and results.
Using Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) for rail treatment was first proposed by our research team. In order to further clarify the parametric response of AWJ on kerf characteristics including the top kerf width (ω), the kerf taper (θ) and the kerf depth (h), experiments were carried out on a section of the rail specimen in this study. Experiments were designed using the Box Behnken Design (BBD) method with three factors, which are waterjet pressure (P), traverse speed (TS) and standoff distance (SOD). The regression models were established to predict the kerf quality by using response surface methodology (RSM), and experimental verification was carried out. The results show that ω is most obviously affected by the SOD, while θ and h are most sensitive to TS. The predicted value of the model is basically consistent with the experimental value of the verification. The maximum error is less than 9%, and the average error is less than 6%, indicating that the established model can effectively predict the kerf characteristics of AWJ cutting rails.
To further optimize the quality of the blade surface model, a fairing modeling method of blade surface based on a genetic algorithm is proposed. According to the NURBS curve and surface modeling principle, the fairing criterion of minimum strain energy and curvature change rate is established. Then the spline interpolation value points are optimized by the genetic algorithm and compared with the B-spline curve. The value points are modeled by NX. The blade surface is smooth, the curve curvature changes evenly, the strain energy is small, and there are no singular points and redundant inflection points.
Atomization and combustion characteristics of DME diesel engines is considerably affected by nozzle fuel flow characteristics of diesel injectors. The FLUENT was employed to numerically estimate fuel flow characteristics of DME engine nozzle. The influence of different inlet pressure, inlet fillet condition on the pressure distribution and the average jet velocity were studied. The results indicate that the minimum pressure value of the transition zone is proportional to the natural logarithm of the inlet fillet; the inlet pressure is parabolic in relation to the minimum pressure in the transition zone, and transition zone’s low pressure value is decreasing and the decreasing trend became more and more faster with inlet pressure increasing; the main influence factor of average flow rate is difference of inlet and outlet pressure, and with the inlet fillet radius increasing, the average flow rate of outlet is firstly increasing and then decreasing.
In the innovative design stage of machine tool (MT), in order to understand the motion status of the MT under different conditions, shorten the development cycle, and improve machining accuracy, this paper proposes a digital twin modeling method for large crossbeam mobile gantry milling machines. By combining digital twin technology, the selection of MT motion components and the design of various motion mechanisms were completed, as well as the machining scheme design of the MT bed. Modeling and simulation were conducted to complete the workpiece machining function, By using digital twin technology to virtually simulate CNC MT and verify their properties in physical prototypes, new ideas are provided for the application of digital twin technology in the design process of CNC MT.
A broadband absorber using a double-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) loaded with resistors is proposed in this paper. Absorptivity is used to obviously characterize the performance of the absorber. Simulation results show that this kind of absorber can achieve Absorptivity of over 90% in the frequency range between 6.98 and 21.12 GHz (fractional bandwidth of 100.64%). Moreover, the structure has a thickness of 4 mm. The influence of the parameters of the proposed absorber on the absorption is then presented and analyzed.
In this paper, the main transmission mechanism of the double servo drive symmetrical toggle press was taken as the object of study. The theoretical derivation of its motion characteristics was carried out. A parametric model was established to analyze its rigid body kinematics. The kinematic performance was improved by rigid-flexible coupling. The research results could provide an important reference for the development of large-tonnage wide-table double servo drive press.
The friction characteristics between the rubber cylinder and the oil tube wall significantly impact the service life and drainage performance of the plunger-type robot. This issue poses a critical technical challenge that must be addressed to promote and apply plunger robot technology. This study focuses on investigating the influence of various structural parameters of the rubber cylinder on the sealing performance of the robot cylinder. By employing a simulation approach that integrates fluid-solid coupling within the rubber cylinder structure, we examine the effects. The findings demonstrate that the rubber cylinder with W3G1.5 structural parameters exhibits more even force distribution and lower average contact friction stress.
When a manipulator to grasp fragile workpieces, the contact impact force between the finger of manipulator and fragile workpieces has an important influence on the grasping stability. In this paper, based on introducing the structure model of the manipulator to grasp fragile workpieces, we present a structural form and parameter optimization of manipulator based on improving contact impact force. In order to find the appropriate operation parameters of manipulator’s finger, the finite element model is constructed for the finger of the manipulator by integrating HyperMesh and LS-PrePost to model. After the corresponding loads, constraints and contact types are applied to the finite element model, the stress and strain cloud images for the finger and the fragile parts on the contact collision process are calculated. By analyzing the calculated results, we can obtain the optimized structural parameters of the manipulator.