This book includes the proceedings of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) 2008 Advanced Research Workshop (ARW). The goal of the meeting was to explore methods to involve the community in the fight against terrorism in an effort to enhance its protection from terrorist attacks and to establish a network between the participants for future collaborations. The two main topics of this book are: (1) Defining the problem of terrorism and collective community protection; why does terrorism exists and why do people join and/or support extremist groups? (2) Counter-terrorism practices and their relation to the community; focused on developing non-orthodox methods to combat terrorism. In other words, why communities should be included in the fight against terrorism. This book should be seen as a guide for policy makers and practitioners to gain a better understanding of how counter terrorism, as well as many other applications, requires community support and involvement to the fullest extent possible. Because the existing threat of terrorism is proof of the failed classical militaristic approaches, the time has come to integrate our communities into the practice of fighting the threat together.
This book includes the proceedings of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) 2008 Advanced Research Workshop (ARW), titled “Together against Terrorism: Building Terrorism Resistant Communities.” The workshop was held in Washington D.C. on September 26–27, 2008, and was planned and organized by Sıddık Ekici from Turkey and Lindita Caci from Albania, with excellent sponsorship from NATO. This event was also co-sponsored by the University of North Texas (UNT); the College of Public Affairs and Community Service (PACS) at UNT; and the Department of Public Administration (PADM) at UNT.
Distinguished participants representing twelve different countries (from the academia and law enforcement communities) were in attendance. The goal of the meeting was to explore methods to involve the community in the fight against terrorism in an effort to enhance its protection from terrorist attacks and to establish a network between the participants for future collaborations. Not only was there a comprehensive series of highly relevant presentations on strengthening the community against terrorism, but the meeting also provided an opportunity to share mutual concerns and meet academicians and practitioners in the field.
The workshop was organized around two main topics:
1. Defining the problem of terrorism and collective community protection
2. Counter-terrorism practices and their relation to the community
On the first topic, attendees presented their studies related, in particular, to why terrorism exists and why people join and/or support extremist groups. Although the studies were problem-oriented, at the conclusion of each presentation, suggestions were offered on how to diminish the threat. The second topic represented studies that primarily focused on developing non-orthodox methods to combat terrorism. In other words, the researchers presented their arguments as to why communities should be included in the fight against terrorism. In addition, suggestions were made concerning how this integration could be achieved and what kind of limitations could exist in the cooperation between law enforcement and the community.
Following the classification of studies received, the articles contained in this book were categorized into three parts:
1. Terrorism and its Causes
2. Organizational and Structural Approaches to Terrorism
3. Civil Society and Counter Terrorism Operations
It is hoped that this book will be a guide for policy makers and practitioners to gain a better understanding of how counter terrorism, as well as many other applications, require community support and involvement to the fullest extent possible. Because the existing threat of terrorism is proof of the failed classical militaristic approaches, the time has come to integrate our communities into the practice of fighting the threat together. Certainly, the integration of communities in counter terrorism policies bears some limitations. Therefore, attempts to counter terrorism together with our communities should be in accordance with the suggestions and recommendations offered in such and/or possible future studies.
This chapter provides a summary of the competing perspectives presented at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Advanced Research Workshop (“Together against Terrorism: Building Terrorism Resistant Communities”) that convened in Washington D.C. on September 26–27, 2008.
Structural approaches to analyzing the roots of terrorism have identified state level variables (for example, repression and state capacity) as possible causes of terrorism. We argue that these structural features represent limitations on non-violent political expression, thus increasing the utility of using violent political tactics, namely terrorism. Our study expands upon existing empirical research to include both domestic and transnational terrorism, as well as conceptualizing economic freedom as a form of political expression. We present summary statistics that add support to our argument.
This paper addresses the problem of language – specifically, the language that we use to define and describe certain types of terrorist activity – and how incorrect use of such language can compound the problem. It also uses language – specifically interpretations of the concept of jihad – as a backdrop to a discussion of radicalization, its linkages to extremist action, and possible mitigating strategies. This paper is intended to stimulate discussion around the need for a common language to describe terrorism adequately, along with a comprehensive understanding of the process of radicalization and the manner in which we may intervene.
The purpose of this study is twofold: First, it seeks to determine whether domestic terrorists in Turkey hold different demographic traits from the rest of the Turkish population. Second, this study focuses on terrorists' degree of involvement in terrorism (as measured by arrest history) in relation to their sociological characteristics and backgrounds (age, gender, education, social class). In other words, to understand at what level domestic terrorists are involved in terrorism, the researcher aims to model patterns of arrest for DHKP/C and Turkish Hezbollah members.
In this work, we conduct an examination of the sociological, demographical and political environments in relation to the origin of terrorist groups and similar illegal activities. Principally considering the significance of critical issues in the genesis and support of terrorist attacks, we attempt to suggest how these weaknesses can be transformed into strong elements devoted not only to prevent the development of terrorist organizations but also in support of the victims involved in these attacks. We will explore current and past terrorist activities in Morocco that will support theories suggesting that socio-economical despair and political instability amongst densely populated areas create a breeding ground for terrorist infiltration and extremist development.
Biosensors for the express control of the total toxicity of environmental objects, revealing of group toxic elements and individual toxins among them are presented. Among the individual toxins, primary attention is paid to mycotoxins, in particular, fumasine, atrazine and T2. T2 is considered as a potential specimen for bioterrorists' activities. Ways to decontaminate polluted environmental objects from different types of low molecular weight toxins are presented. More especially, the possibility of using some calyx  resorcinol arenas for specific binding of the number of mycotoxins and pesticides is discussed. This possibility is analyzed from two points of view: the application of calix  resorcinol arenas for the removal of toxic substances and the creation of the artificial sensitive layer of sensors revealed by the instrumental analytical devices in the express and on line regime. Both approaches provide practices demanded for the prevention of non-desirable consequences from bioterrorists' activities.
Law enforcement response to terrorism is argued to be defining the factor in that will be successful – the terrorist organizations or law enforcement agencies. This study used a sample of confitents in Turkey, examined law enforcement practices, focusing on militaristic and traditional policing methods, in responding to terrorism in order assess the impact on the individual's decisions to join a terrorist organization. The study also looked into participants' perceptions about Community Oriented Policing (COP); and if it implemented in Turkey, how it would affect the individuals' decisions to join terrorist organizations. More than 25% of the respondents reported the influence of law enforcement practices on their decision to join the organizations. A significant relationship was found to exist between brutality and law enforcement's influence and reliance on militaristic tactics in an individual's decision to join a terrorist organization.
The following chapter argues that emergency management must be seen as a valued participant in homeland security policy. It acknowledges that intelligence, military and law enforcement officials are vital for efforts to prevent terrorism. It then defines emergency management, and discusses terminology that is related to both terrorism and other types of disasters. The chapter concludes with a discussion about the benefits of involving emergency management in homeland security.
Europeans tend to approach the problem of terrorism as a communal problem while the American administrations treat it as a political one. Thus instrumental and organizational theories of terrorism lauded in the United States neglect the cultural dimension of the phenomenon. Research shows, however, that terrorism must be understood as a result of a radicalization of cultural norms and values prevalent in extremist “subcultures” as well. This means that terrorists succeed not only by distancing themselves from the community as individuals and organizations, but by linking themselves to it as enthusiastic champions of cultural aspirations. This essay outlines the general contours of a cultural approach to the phenomenon of terrorism and contrasts it to instrumental and organizational approaches.
Crisis management (CM) systems today are gaining more importance than ever before because of the increasing number of natural and manmade crises. However, there is not a unique worldwide CM policy; the systems are different in every single country as exemplified by even developed European Union member countries that apply different systems. Defining the characteristics of four EU countries may give an idea in understanding the various public administration perspectives and their effects on CM systems. This paper explains the crisis management systems in Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Turkey and also provides relevant CM case analyses from those countries.
Since the new millennium, the Indian government has moved from the traditional command and control style of emergency management to a more problem solving style characterized by continuity, coordination and cooperation in an effort to reduce the losses to lives and property from natural and manmade disasters and to channel special attention towards women, children, the elderly, and minorities in an attempt to reduce their vulnerability to these disasters. This practice is also a bid to increase trust and confidence among the citizens in the Indian government. The author discusses community policing experiments that have been successfully adopted as well as the challenges of sustaining them in a culturally diverse developing country. The article concludes by suggesting how to possibly expand and sustain community involvement as a means to create disaster resilient and sustainable communities leading to a better future for the Indian populace.
Velizar Shalamanov, Ira Grossman, Jeffrey Winbourne
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Deeper integration between various services dealing with civil security requires a new type of information and communications systems. At the same time, to a greater extent of importance is the community's involvement in providing a better environment for security forces to protect citizens and the infrastructure. The authors focus on matching new technologies with human factors – both in security organizations as well as from the community – in providing safety and security in a terroristic threatened environment. Although integrated security operation centers supported by system development and training centers do not comprise the only answer based on technology, they do represent a new tool for community building programs.
This study points out two important problems related to protecting our communities from terrorism and introduces a community based protection method to develop Terrorism Resistant Communities. A comparative content analysis method is used to determine the characteristics of existing community based security programs. For this purpose, programs relative to three countries (U.S., the U.K. and Turkey) are examined. The minimum qualifications for building terrorism resistant communities are identified and recommended in the findings.
This paper examines the importance and role that civil society plays in its involvement in responding to terrorism. Strengthening its response against the threat of terrorism in a long-lasting and effective way is the key issue addressed in this paper. As such, a systematic understanding should be developed that points out potential limitations that a civil society may face in its efforts to provide an effective means through involvement in the fight against terrorism. The author performs structural analyses of three key actors: state, civil society and terrorist groups. In addition, the various ways and means in which civil societies can be mobilized to counter terrorism is demonstrated by outlining practical strategies that can be implemented across the globe.
The author analyzes legislative frameworks and discusses problems of applying legislative provisions to countering terrorism in Ukraine. In particular, various forms and methods of cooperation between authorized law enforcement agencies and public/private businesses are considered, followed by recommendations. The analysis and discussions are based on a comparison of the Ukrainian, European and USA experiences and practices.
This paper examines several current tools for private-public partnership. Specifically, it seeks to identify gaps in the private-public partnership efforts by the United States government and provides direction in filling these gaps. Additionally, current tools being utilized are examined as a group to assist in the understanding of the current state of private-public partnerships in the United States.
This paper seeks to list the various publicly acknowledged terrorist de-radicalization programs and provides insights concerning their overall methodological approach and effectiveness. Similarities and differences are noted and the paper concludes with commentary about the state of the research on the topic.
Turkey has suffered from ethno-nationalist terrorism of the PKK since 1984. This paper contains a description of counter terrorism policies implemented by the Turkish government from 1985 to 2008, and further demonstrates that during the post-2000 period, Turkey's counter terrorism procedures changed significantly from counterinsurgency-based coercive policies to cohesive policies that seek to win the hearts and minds of the Kurds through economic investments, financial education, health and other non-military policies. These cohesive policies helped the government regain the support of the Kurds; hence, the PKK lost a considerable amount of its popularity. The paper concludes that in the long term, non-military based cohesive policies represent the best policies against the PKK.
The evil of terrorism has manifested itself in both large and small scale events in Kyrgyzstan. In fighting against terrorism, Kyrgyzstan has developed policy reforms to increase the state capacity and technical base with the help of international assistance and cooperation. However, the involvement of community groups and citizens has largely been overlooked. This paper uses collaborative public management and new governance perspectives to argue that establishing mechanisms of collaborative partnerships and citizen participation in solving societal problems that breed terrorism will help the Kyrgyz government increase the legitimacy and effectiveness of government agencies in preventing terrorism by virtue of distinctive local capabilities and resources that communities and citizens provide.
As the ideological motivation of terrorism has increasingly shifted towards religious extremism, particularly in its violent jihadist form, so the threat it poses to society has increased, with networks of independent cells willing to use indiscriminate ‘catastrophic’ multiple mass casualty suicide attacks. While traditional counter-terrorist measures have mitigated this threat, because of its mutation into a global ideological movement, such ‘new’ terrorism has regenerated through radicalization. Consequently it is increasingly necessary to incorporate and utilize counter-ideology as part of the wider counter-terrorist strategy. As the radicalization of individuals occurs at a community level, the use of counter-ideology by the authorities will rely on the support of the wider community and assistance of key individuals within it, to ‘re-imagine counter-terrorism’.
Although counter-terrorist agencies are faced with the dubious task of preventing and deterring terrorist attacks, inevitably, it is only a matter of time before terrorists will successfully strike again. Thus, management of post-event short-term aftermaths and long-term outcomes are at the forefront in fighting terrorism. Terrorist attack response management is crucial in maintaining public assurance of protection and survival. This article offers a framework that will approach the fundamental challenge of management in a structured way through formalizing its processes, inputs and outputs in an effort to provide a global picture that identifies the role and preparation that communities play. From the lessons learned from previous terrorist attacks, establishment of a strategic community resilience framework that will positively support response management in the short- and long-term recovery and thus, return lives to normalcy once again is presented.
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