Ebook: Proceedings of the 2022 International Conference on Smart Manufacturing and Material Processing (SMMP2022)
Smart manufacturing is a broad category of manufacturing that employs computer-integration, high levels of adaptability and rapid design changes, together with digital information technology and a technically-trained workforce.
This book presents the proceedings of SMMP2022, the 2022 International Conference on Smart Manufacturing and Material Processing, held on 12 and 13 August 2022 as a virtual event due to continuing restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and hosted from Shanghai, China. The conference provides a platform for researchers and scientists from smart manufacturing and material sciences to come together with researchers from various other application areas to discuss problems and solutions, identify new issues, and shape future directions for research. The conference received 60 submissions. These were submitted to a rigorous peer review process by a committee of experts from various disciplines, after which, 23 were accepted for presentation at the conference and publication here. The topics covered include materials processing and product manufacture, sensors and smart material systems, functional materials, industrial automation and process control, and discussion of the state-of-the-art and future direction of smart manufacturing and material sciences. Providing an overview of current developments in smart manufacturing and material processing, the book will be of interest to all those working in the field.
It is my pleasure to present you the Proceedings of the 2022 International Conference on Smart Manufacturing and Material Processing (SMMP2022), which was held on August 12–13, 2022, in Shanghai, China.
The primary goal of the conference is to bring researchers and scientists from smart manufacturing and material sciences together with researchers from various other application areas to discuss problems and solutions in the area, to identify new issues, and to shape future directions for research. Due to restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the organizing committee decided to hold the conference over virtual platforms so that participants could share their research work. In addition to the contributed papers, internationally known experts from several countries were also invited to deliver keynote and invited speeches at SMMP2022.
Papers were invited on all topics related to smart manufacturing and material processing. The selection of papers was based on a rigorous peer review process by a committee of experts from various disciplines. Every submitted paper was first screened by the program committee, and once it had cleared the initial screening, it was sent to potential reviewers for peer review. The topics in these proceedings include, but are not limited to, the following areas: materials processing and product manufacturing, sensors and smart material systems, functional materials, industrial automation and process control, and discussion of the state-of-the-art and future direction of smart manufacturing and material sciences. This compilation of the accepted papers represents an interesting outcome of the conference, and we would like to acknowledge all the authors for their valuable contributions.
We sincerely hope these proceedings will initiate a broader discourse within the research community. We will continue to organize this conference in the future to provide an effective platform for the further exchange of new knowledge, and perhaps potential collaboration, in research areas of smart manufacturing and material processing.
With warm regards,
Ass. Prof. Babak Safaei, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey
Prof. Jinfeng Wang, Zhengzhou University, China
To develop one porous additive material that can be assembled on cigarette filter, and achieve both functions of reducing hazard substances like tar and providing special aroma and moisture, this study innovatively selects the raw materials like baking-carbonized functional flavors with special aroma and konjac glucomannan (KGM) with properties of water absorption, gelling and film-forming, following the steps of casting into membrane shape, thermostatic crosslinking for strength enhancement and freeze-drying for pore creating to prepare 5 porous composite membranes based on baked-carbonized functional flavors and konjac glucomannan (KGM) were prepared. The composite structure, morphologies on the surface and the cross section, porosity structures including mesoporous and macropore of the porous composite membranes were characterized, the tensile performance and aroma constituents through solid phase microextraction and hazardous substances adsorption as packed into the commercial cigarette were also studied. Results showed that all baked-carbonized functional flavors were carbonized into amorphous, and contained the groups of aromatic components like ≡C-H, C=O, C-O-C (aldehydes, esters), cross-linking achieved the entanglement of KGM segments by deacetylation. When compounded, KGM acted as the framework to build the 3D porous network structure, and the functional flavor powders were wrapped into the KGM layer. All porous composite membranes owned some mechanical strength and the internal porosity over 90%, the mesopores and the macropores were ranged with 5–50 nm and 20–255 µm, respectively, which was satisfied for gas flowing and harmful substances adsorption. Aroma and resulting abundance of extracted constituents changed with timing, which equipped the membranes with a comprehensive aroma feeling. Among them, the membrane prepared with the raw material of dark plum showed a better comprehensive performance, especially it could significantly reduce the contents of harmful HCN and phenol in cigarette during smoking.
Gun Shot residues (GSR) are important physical evidence because of their potential, wide distribution and difficulty in destruction. To overcome the disadvantages of traditional detection methods, such as time-consuming, relying on large instruments and weak intuition, Ga/Eu3+/DPA rare earth complex probes were synthesized for quantitative detection of Cu2+ in shooting residues by hydrothermal method. The morphological size, molecular structure and fluorescence properties of the probes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Then, the synthesis conditions were optimized, and the anti-ion interference capability was investigated. After that, the linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and Cu2+ concentration was investigated. Finally, according to the relationship between the concentration of Cu2+ in the shooting residue and the distance of bullet holes detected by ICP-MS, the experiment verified that the fluorescent probe is fully capable of quantitative detection of Cu2+ in the shooting residue, and is expected to play an important role in the application of criminal technology.
With the improvement of social and economic level, green construction and sustainable development have become the main development directions of the construction industry, and the disadvantages and limitations of traditional wooden template and steel template have gradually been exposed, which cannot meet the development of the construction industry in the new era. The development of new materials and new structural forms of formwork has become a problem that has attracted much attention in the template industry. EANTE’s new composite material template adopts the self-developed LFT-D long fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite material molding technology, which stirs and mixes continuous glass fiber and modified PP (polypropylene). The combination of matrix plastic and glass fiber is well realized. Just like the relationship between concrete and steel bars, all aspects of the plastic matrix are enhanced by long fibers. In this paper, through the analysis of the mechanical properties of the EANTE template, it is proved that the template can be used in practical engineering.
In recent years, with the continuous development of science and technology, the accuracy requirements for flow measurement are also constantly improving. The development of micro flow measurement technology plays a driving role in biomedicine, chemical engineering, semiconductor manufacturing and other fields. In this paper, the relationship between the fluid velocity in the pipe and its pressure on the pipe wall is used to sense the pressure wave generated by the fluid flowing through the pipe through the piezoelectric film, and then measure the small flow in the pipe. A pressure sensitive element was made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film, and a real flow experimental platform was built. By processing the voltage signal with flow information collected from the real flow experiment, the voltage fluctuation amplitudes corresponding to 9 flow measurement points are obtained. The flow voltage amplitude characteristic curve is obtained through curve fitting, and the flow measurement sensitivity, relative error and repeatability are calculated. The real flow experiment results verify the feasibility of the micro flow measurement method based on pressure wave. The research of this method is an innovation of micro flow detection method, which has important practical significance.
This work aims to address the severe film detachments from the surface of boiler steel in thermal power plants after steam corrosion attacks, especially as the accumulated detached oxide layers are prone to block boiler tubes, reducing their heat transfer efficiencies. The operational conditions of a typical thermal boiler were simulated with TP347H steel as the experimental material. Gravimetry, metallographic analysis, and scanning electron microscope were employed in the corrosion mechanism investigation of the boiler steel in high temperature steam, and the growth and shedding mechanism investigations of the corrosion product layers. The TP347H steel was rapidly oxidized in dry steam at 650 °C to generate Mn and Cr oxides, whereas Fe2+ was formed after the corrosion process. FeO and FeOOH layers were crystallized out of the Mn and Cr oxides, and the bond strength between the Mn and Cr oxides and the FeO and Fe2O3 layers was weak, making the detachments of the FeO and FeOOH layers quite easy. Continuous oxidation was observed when the oxidized film layer was exposed to the atmosphere, with some parts of the FeO in the film layer readily oxidizing to Fe2O3. This increased the stress in the film, thereby promoting the film detachment during exposure to the atmosphere. This research provides a theoretical basis for the corrosion protection of boiler tubes and their safe operations.
To solve the problem of energy crisis in today’s world, energy conservation is more and more get the attention of people, heat exchanger occupies an important place in the field of energy saving, however, because of the heat exchanger is a traditional energy-intensive heavy industry, one of the most widely used equipment in it as preheating, mainly in the process of waste heat recovery, refrigeration equipment, made outstanding contributions to energy saving. In this paper, plate heat exchanger as the research object, select the established model, through the analysis of the existing heat transfer enhancement theory, combined with the classical optimization algorithm genetic algorithm plate heat exchanger programming optimization, through iterative calculation to get the optimal plate heat exchanger structure parameters. Finally, combined with the simulation calculation of the performance of the heat exchanger before and after optimization structure parameters, further analysis of its internal flow. The research in this paper provides a theoretical basis for the design, structure optimization and performance prediction of plate heat exchanger.
With the increasing output of new energy vehicles, higher requirements are put forward for automotive plastics. On the basis of accurately understanding the advantages and applicable conditions of various new plastic materials, according to relevant standards, it is of great significance for the development of new energy vehicle manufacturing industry to design and apply them to new energy vehicles. Taking bio-plastics and carbon fiber reinforced plastics as examples, based on the analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of new plastic materials, it discusses the application status and prospect of new plastic materials in the design of new energy vehicles. Future development direction of new plastics refers to develop new plastics and expand their application types through more innovative research and development of new plastics modification technology with its performance improvement so as to be applied in more structural parts in new energy vehicles.
The lifting support platform is a part of the vehicle thermal balance test bed. Its main function is used to carry out the thermal balance test of the vehicle, effectively and reliably connect the dynamometer to the rear end of the vehicle gearbox through the cardan shaft, and effectively and reliably ensure the successful completion of the vehicle thermal balance test. In this paper, the use of UG software to draw the dynamometer parts diagram, and then assembly, finally the assembly drawing is obtained. To put it into production, the physical map is completely obtained.
Hypersonic vehicles are an important development direction in aerospace, and their development will have a significant impact on world security, the development of cosmic space resources and related disciplines. Along with the rapid development of modern aircraft, landing gear is commonly used with retractable technology, which brings a series of problems, such as the design of landing gear hatch retraction heat sealing mechanism and the evaluation of air tightness. This paper takes the thermal sealing structure of the front main landing gear hatch of a vehicle as an example, reviews the progress of the analysis techniques of sealing material properties and sealing structure design for hypersonic vehicles at home and abroad, discusses the current status of the development and limitations of hatch thermal sealing technology, outlines and discusses the key technologies for design and analysis of hatch thermal sealing structure and the future development trend, and summarizes the test equipment and methods for identifying the performance of seals and sealing systems.
In the whole life cycle of SRM, it has to bear many kinds of loads, such as temperature, gravity, vibration, ignition impact, axial overload and so on. Under these loads, damage and aging will occur in SRM propellant grain, and the creep effect under gravity will expand the damage and even change the grain shape. In addition, the bonding interface of SRM charge structure may be deboning, and the combustion of propellant grain leads to the increase of failure surface, which seriously weakens the performance of SRM, and may even lead to explosion. Based on the failure mode, failure mechanism and failure criterion of SRM, the experimental research methods, numerical simulation methods and interface theory research of SRM charge structure failure analysis are described in detail. The conclusion has important reference significance for the research of SRM failure analysis.
In order to solve the coupling error problem of smart bolt, the coupling model of piezoelectric thin film sensor and bolt is established by using piezoelectric constitutive equation. The size parameters of ZnO piezoelectric film sensor are simulated and analyzed by finite element method using Comsol software M10×1.5 piezoelectric thin film sensor is prepared on the bolt. First, the sensors of different piezoelectric materials are compared, and then the shape, size and thickness of the piezoelectric materials of the sensor are simulated; the size and thickness of electrode material are simulated. The simulation results show that the piezoelectric material is ZnO, the shape is round, the piezoelectric material size is 10 mm, the piezoelectric thickness is 1000 nm, the electrode material size is 6 mm, and the electrode thickness is 200 nm. ZnO piezoelectric thin film sensor was fabricated with this material and size.
The widely adopted the high strength steel tube is an important way to solve the lightweight body and collision safety. The traditional high pressure tube hydroforming and hot gas forming through “expansion” deformation to form hollow parts, and the internal pressure is the deformation driving force. There are some industrial difficulties such as heavy dependence on high pressure, wall thickness thinning and low production efficiency, which limits the production and application of high-strength steel tubes. Based on the principle of compression deformation, this paper develops the hot hydro-forging process to form the high-strength steel tubes. After the tube blank is heated to austenitization, the tube is compressed and deformed by the die closing force of the die through a new die structure. The internal pressure only plays a supporting role, which fundamentally avoids the thickness thinning and cracking under the expansion deformation mode, and has the advantages of rapid forming time and uniform quenching. Finally, the A-pillar tube with 1500 MPa is formed through the reasonable hot hydro-forging process.
In order to explore the frost resistance durability of basalt fiber reinforced concrete (BFRC), the freeze-thaw cycle tests of BFRC with different fiber contents were carried out from the microscopic point of view, and the macro-morphological deterioration characteristics and micro-morphological characteristics of BFRC with different freeze-thaw cycles were analyzed. By testing the hole structure parameters of BFRC with different freeze-thaw cycles, the effects of gas content, average bubble chord length, specific surface area, and bubble spacing coefficient on the frost resistance of BFRC were studied. The results show that: With the increase of fiber content, the damage degree of concrete specimens weakens, and the proportion of harmful pores in the pore size distribution increases significantly; It decreases with the increase of bubble spacing coefficient; The addition of basalt fiber can effectively inhibit the development of cracks and reduce the probability of large pores in the process of concrete freeze-thaw damage, thereby improving the frost resistance of concrete. Therefore, for the northern region, the research on the frost resistance of BFRC is very necessary and of great significance.
Excessively high temperatures will interfere with the operation of the components and damage equipment. The key to fixing this is to generate uniform heat dissipation and maximize heat dissipation. This paper proposed a cold plate with three S-type multistage Tesla valves (ST-MSTV). Thermal performance was first evaluated with flow direction and angle. The effects of channel flow direction and valve spacing on the cold plate were then investigated with Ansys Fluent software. The standard deviation of temperature was helpful in representing the uniformity of the temperature of the cold plate. The heat transfer capability of the three-channel ST-MSTV was proven to be effective on the fact that reverse flow causes fluid mixing and vortices. The flow channel form of scheme 2 is better than other schemes, showing the best temperature uniformity and the most effective cooling performance when the valve spacing is 30 mm.
With the increasing demand in intelligent manufacturing, an evolving prospective is anticipated for intelligent handling robots. Therefore, the present study aims at developing an intelligent handling robot which is capable of acquiring and fulfilling certain tasks from QR codes, such as handing objects with different shapes and colors. To this end, multiple photoelectric tubes were placed during the process. Subsequently, after ADC data acquisition for multiple times, channels were configured on a STM 32 board. Moreover, a photocell was connected with a single chip microcomputer. Accordingly, the values were obtained by photoelectric pair tubes. To identify QR codes, a camera module was installed. Furthermore, DC motors with encoders and a mechanical arm with steering gears were used as the source of power for the wheels and as the means of grabbing objects, respectively. At the same time, a universal algorithm was written to plan the robot’s walking routes.
As a new nondestructive testing method, the accurate measurement of laser ultrasonic velocity is of great significance for judging the internal crack defects of composites, calculating the elastic modulus, residual stress and grain size. Based on the finite element analysis method, the thermoelastic effect of laser induced ultrasonic vibration, the time-of-flight method and laser grating method for measuring ultrasonic velocity are studied in this paper. Firstly, the waveforms of laser point source, line source and laser grating are compared and analyzed. Secondly, the error analysis of the wave velocity under different radius laser point source, different half width laser line source and different grating spacing is carried out. The simulation results show that the laser grating method has higher stability and smaller measurement error. In addition, this method is less affected by other waves and the external environment. This paper provides a basis for improving the measurement accuracy of laser ultrasonic velocity and further applying laser ultrasonic velocity to nondestructive testing and measurement of related physical quantities.
In this paper, the UG software is used to draw the three dimensional diagram of the key parts of the thermal balance lifting platform of the whole vehicle, and the ANSYS software is also used to simulate the Von-Mises stress on the connecting plate. The structure of the column is optimized, and the stress-strain diagram and the relationship diagram between the time and the strain are obtained. The results show that the structure design is reasonable to meet the needs of production.
In order to improve the measurement accuracy of transient heat flow based on laser pulse response technology, a dynamic calibration algorithm of heat flow based on pulse response of fiber semiconductor laser is proposed. The system uses a high-power fiber semiconductor laser to generate modulated excitation, and quantitatively detects the transient heat flow energy in the form of pulsed radiation. The light intensity of the light source is adjusted by the homogenization of the light spot, and the energy measurement is completed with a Gardon meter. The data acquisition card and signal analysis circuit are used to realize the high-speed calculation and acquisition of the heat flow signal. Using the transient quantitative identification algorithm, the dynamic test performance of a circular foil heat flow meter of the GD series is tested and calibrated. The simulation analysis of the system’s ability to modulate the signal verifies the feasibility of the system’s light source modulation. A transient quantitative identification system based on high-power fiber semiconductor lasers is established in the experiment. The data curve noise after passing this algorithm is smaller and the accuracy is higher, which verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm. The algorithm can be applied to the field of rapid quantitative identification and analysis of transient heat flow energy.
Aqueous emulsion acrylic adhesive was prepared by batch emulsion polymerization With 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and butyl acrylate (BA) as soft monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA) as hard monomer, acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) as hydrophilic functional monomers, dodecanethiol (NDM) as molecular weight regulator, Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and octyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether (op-10) as mixed emulsifiers, ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, and distilled water (H2O) as solvent. The effects of monomer, emulsifier, initiator, reaction temperature and time on the properties of the synthetic adhesive were also discussed. The emulsifier accounted for 4% of the monomer, and the initiator accounted for 1%. This method greatly reduces the preparation time, improves the preparation efficiency, and facilitates the operation and production. The prepared aqueous acrylate emulsion was white and blue light, stable and small odor, good water resistance, solid content of 42.13%, viscosity of 857.1 mPa·s, peel strength of 2.647 N·(25mm)–1 through calcium stability. waterborne acrylate adhesive by water as a dispersion medium and have the advantages of high solid content, safety, non-toxicity and low cost, which can meet the needs of packaging and printing fields.
In this paper, a multi-objective optimization strategy of production process parameters based on the neural network and genetic algorithm is proposed with an automotive scroll disk as the research object. The forging forming process is numerically simulated by Deform-3D finite element software, with billet temperature, die temperature, and forming speed as optimization variables, and forming load, residual stress, and die deformation as optimization indicators. The nonlinear mapping relationship between variables and indicators is constructed by using the neural network, and the neural network model is optimized based on the genetic algorithm for dynamic optimization of parameters. The most suitable solutions finally obtained in the Pareto frontier set: billet temperature: 460°C, mold temperature: 220.006°C, forming speed: 18.4158 mm/s, when the values of the three optimized indicators are smaller. The solution was experimentally verified and the obtained vortex discs were filled to the brim with no defects, so the process parameters can be applied to actual production processing.
In order to study the possibility of aerodynamic optimization of the base cavity for slender body, the influence of base cavity with non-cylindrical shape, which is different from the traditional column one, is investegated by numerical method in the paper. The supersonic flow field of same slender body with two sorts of unconventional base cavity, which is half truncated-cone and half column, is simulated by axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. Distribution of Mach Number (Ma), streamline, temperature and pressure of the flow field; the aerodynamic drag of the slender body were calculated. Compared with the traditional cylindrical base cavity structure, results show that, the appropriate non-cylindrical base cavity is helpful to decrease the aerodynamic drag of slender body. In the paper’s simulation, the slender body with the base cavity of half truncated-cone (negative inclination) and half column shape has the smallest aerodynamic drag. The cylindrical base cavity structure, which is widely used to reduce the aerodynamic drag, there are spaces to further optimize still.
The ZrCuSiAs structure type compounds represent ultra low lattice thermal conductivity, which may results in a fantastic thermoelectric performance. Here a systematic investigation on the thermoelectric performances of ZrCuSiAs structure type materials LaZnPnO (Pn = P, As and Sb) by first principle calculation is performed. The outcomes represent that the LaZnPnO have ultra low lattice thermal conductivity, which could due to the layered structure and the presence of heavy atoms. The figure of merit of LaZnSbO are the highest among compounds LaZnPnO (Pn = P, As and Sb), varying from 0.29 to 0.79 around the temperature extent begins with 300 K ends in 800 K, however, a utmost ZT of 0.88 is obtained at 900 K in material LaZnAsO, because of its higher electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient than those of LaZnSbO in high temperature. The great ZT of LaZnPnO with extreme low lattice thermal conductivity indicates a promising application in thermoelectric devices.
According to the characteristics of high bottom hole temperature and large temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of reservoir casing in the process of underground coal gasification (underground coal gasification), the temperature field and stress field model of wellbore in gas production wells is established based on thermo-mechanical coupling, and the stress distribution of different steel grades of casing under limit working conditions is studied. The results show that: (1) under the condition of daily gas production rate of 30×104m3/d and gasifier temperature of 1000°C, P110 steel grade casing always meets the strength requirement; N80/L80 steel casing yielded at 188°C, and the critical gas temperature of J55 steel casing was 990°C after cooling by spraying device. (2) J55 steel grade casing can be selected when the temperature of gasifier is lower than 600C, N80/L80 steel grade casing can be selected when the temperature is in the range of 600°C–900°C, and P110 steel grade casing can be selected when the temperature exceeds 900°C.