The international community's involvement in, and awareness of, nuclear security has grown significantly in the past fifteen years. In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001, governments acknowledged the need to increase nuclear security. Although the September 2001 attacks were not nuclear or radiological in nature, there was a fear that future attacks might be, especially if non-state actors were able to access nuclear material. Growing numbers of both potential threats and nuclear facilities around the world led the international community to seek greater security measures and ensure that states are equipped to implement those measures. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the term ‘nuclear security’ has evolved significantly in both how it is defined and how states respond to it. At present, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines nuclear security as, ‘the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorised access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities .
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