RFID tags are extensively used in many applications, even though RFID systems suffer from security and privacy risks, such as data forgery and tracking. RFID authentication protocols and lightweight cryptographic algorithms have been developed to overcome these risks. Saarinen et al. have studied some design requirements for the lightweight cryptographic algorithms from the viewpoint of implementation . They have proposed lightweight stream ciphers to generate Tag-IDs. However, the Tag-ID length they evaluated is too short to realize secure RFID authentications and compact implementations of the lightweight hash functions are inappropriate for generating the Tag-IDs because they take a large number of clock cycles. In this paper, we evaluate hardware performance of certain lightweight stream ciphers for generating long Tag-IDs defined in RFID standards, such as the EPC Data Standard and ISO/IEC 15963. We evaluate hardware performance of certain lightweight hash functions with parallel implementation to meet a low area requirement and to achieve high speed performance. We show that as the Tag-IDs become longer, the hash functions take a large number of clock cycles while the stream ciphers take smaller number of clock cycles. Our results reveal that the light weight stream ciphers are suitable for generating the Tag-IDs for RFID applications which require quick responses.
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