Ebook: Transdisciplinary Engineering Methods for Social Innovation of Industry 4.0
The concept of concurrent engineering (CE) was first developed in the 1980s. Now often referred to as transdiciplinary engineering, it is based on the idea that different phases of a product life cycle should be conducted concurrently and initiated as early as possible within the Product Creation Process (PCP). The main goal of CE is to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the PCP and reduce errors in later phases, as well as incorporating considerations – including environmental implications – for the full lifecycle of the product. It has become a substantive methodology in many industries, and has also been adopted in the development of new services and service support.
This book presents the proceedings of the 25th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering, held in Modena, Italy, in July 2018. This international conference attracts researchers, industry experts, students, and government representatives interested in recent transdisciplinary engineering research, advancements and applications.
The book contains 120 peer-reviewed papers, selected from 259 submissions from all continents of the world, ranging from the theoretical and conceptual to papers addressing industrial best practice, and is divided into 11 sections reflecting the themes addressed in the conference program and addressing topics as diverse as industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing; human-centered design; modeling, simulation and virtual design; and knowledge and data management among others.
With an overview of the latest research results, product creation processes and related methodologies, this book will be of interest to researchers, design practitioners and educators alike.
This book of proceedings contains papers peer-reviewed and accepted for the 25th ISTE International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering, held at the UNIMORE University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, 3–6 July 2018, Italy. This is the seventh issue of the newly introduced series “Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering”, which publishes the proceedings of the TE (formerly: CE) conference series and accompanied events. The TE/CE conference series is organized annually by the International Society of Transdisciplinary Engineering, in short ISTE, formerly called International Society of Productivity Enhancement (ISPE, Inc.) and constitutes an important forum for international scientific exchange on transdisciplinary engineering. These international conferences attract a significant number of researchers, industry experts and students, as well as government representatives, who are interested in the recent advances in transdisciplinary engineering research, advancements and applications.
Developed in the 80's, the CE approach is based on the concept that different phases of a product life cycle should be conducted concurrently and initiated as early as possible within the Product Creation Process (PCP), including the implications of this approach within the extended enterprise and networks. The main goal of CE is to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the PCP and to reduce errors in the later phases, as well as to incorporate considerations for the full lifecycle, through-life operations, and environmental issues. In the past decades, CE has become the substantive basic methodology in many industries (e.g., automotive, aerospace, machinery, shipbuilding, consumer goods, process industry, environmental engineering) and is also adopted in the development of new services and service support.
The initial basic CE concepts have matured and have become the foundations of many new ideas, methodologies, initiatives, approaches and tools. Generally, the current CE focus concentrates on collaboration within and between enterprises and its many different elements. Current research on CE is driven again by many factors like increased customer demands, globalization, (international) collaboration and environmental strategies. The successful application of CE in the past opens also the perspective for future applications like overcoming natural catastrophes, sustainable mobility concepts with electrical vehicles, and intensive, integrated, data processing. Due to the increasing importance of transdisciplinarity, the board of ISPE, Inc., now ISTE, decided to rename the conference series in “Transdisciplinary Engineering” in 2016.
The concept of transdisciplinarity transcends inter- and multi-disciplinary ways of working. Though it is also aimed at aligning different types of knowledge, the context in which research and processes are performed is key. Transdisciplinary processes are aimed at solving complex ill-defined problems or problems for which the solution is not obvious from the beginning. It is important that people from practice collaborate with people from scientific communities. Moreover, for the respective problems, single disciplines cannot bring sufficient knowledge for solving those problems. Disciplines should be open to other disciplines to be able to share and exchange the knowledge necessary for problem solving. In particular, technical and social science disciplines need to collaborate to use the best of different worlds.
The conference is entitled: “Transdisciplinary Engineering Methods for Social Innovation of Industry 4.0”. The TE2018 Organizing Committee has identified 23 thematic areas within TE and launched a Call For Papers accordingly. In total 259 papers have been submitted from all continents of the world. The submissions as well as invited talks have been collated into 11 streams led by outstanding researchers and practitioners.
The Proceedings contains 120 peer-reviewed papers by authors from 23 countries. These papers range from the theoretical, conceptual to strongly pragmatic addressing industrial best practice. The involvement of more than 22 companies from many industries in the presented papers gives additional importance to this conference.
This book on ‘Transdisciplinary Engineering Methods for Social Innovation of Industry 4.0’ is directed at three constituencies: researchers, design practitioners, and educators. Researchers will benefit from the latest research results and knowledge of product creation processes and related methodologies. Engineering professionals and practitioners will learn from the current state of the art in concurrent engineering practice, new approaches, methods, tools and their applications. The educators in the CE community gather the latest advances and methodologies for dissemination in engineering curricula, while the community also encourages young educators to bring new ideas into the field.
The proceedings are subdivided into several parts, reflecting the themes addressed in the conference programme:
Part 1 is entitled Industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing and contains papers on a wide range of issues concerning the adoption and use of an Industry 4.0 approach ranging from SMEs to large manufacturing companies.
Part 2 outlines the importance of additive manufacturing. It contains papers addressing various aspects of the transition to additive manufacturing in different application domains.
Part 3, human-centered design, addresses a variety of approaches for, amongst others, human-robot collaboration, vehicle motions, user interface design, and other highly important applications involving or impacting on people.
Part 4 contains papers in the theme innovation and product development and Management addressing e.g., integrated design issues, cost estimation, and corporate knowledge.
Part 5 focuses on cost modeling with an emphasis on cost modeling in a lifecycle process and inventory management.
Part 6 contains contributions on decision support with various methodologies for decision support in particular domains.
Part 7 illustrates some approaches to modeling, simulation and virtual design. Papers included in this part address simulation methods for products as well as processes with the goal to reduce costs and errors.
Part 8 deals with the transdisciplinary engineering. This part contains reflections on a TE approach as well as knowledge and information sharing in social and cultural contexts.
Part 9 contains contributions on production technology, robotics and maintenance addressing various methodologies in design, production, and maintenance, with an emphasis on efficiency enhancement and operational issues.
Part 10, Knowledge and data management, contains papers on information and knowledge management as well as knowledge extraction in various domains.
Part 11 addresses the theme sustainability, risk management and supply chain with papers on sustainability and environmental issues in various environments including the supply chain and alliances. Other approaches are also contained in this part, like risk estimation for alliance formation.
We acknowledge the high quality contributions of all authors to this book and the work of the members of the International Program Committee who assisted with the blind peer-review of the original papers submitted and presented at the conference. Readers are sincerely invited to consider all of the contributions made by this year's participants through the presentation of TE2018 papers collated into this book of proceedings. We hope that they will be further inspired in their work for disseminating their ideas for new approaches for sustainable, integrated, product development in a multi-disciplinary environment within the ISTE community.
Margherita Peruzzini, Conference Chair
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
Marcello Pellicciari, Conference Chair
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
Cees Bil, Co-Program Chair
RMIT University, Australia
Josip Stjepandić, Co-Program Chair
PROSTEP AG, Germany
Nel Wognum, Co-Program Chair
TU Delft, The Netherlands
Large corporations work with legacy systems to standardize the execution of activities, support, data formatting and communication between different sites around the world. However, some companies in certain countries have been unable to integrate these systems due to a number of factors involving cultural aspects, local legislation and infrastructure. With the arrival of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, also known as Industry 4.0, there is a need to deploy digital projects that have a dependency relationship with legacy systems in acquiring and managing information making it more accessible to the user. In addition, this integration needs to be synchronized with other countries so as not to lead to uneven maturity among organizations, leading to difficulties in adopting I4.0 in different plants around the world. The objective of this article is to elaborate an evaluation methodology between legacy and local systems, using multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM/A), in order to verify if both attend the specifications of the organization's digital transformation projects. As a way to evaluate the proposed model was used the case of an automotive company located in Brazil for more than 20 years that has one of its units in South America (Colombia) with local systems that are bringing numerous difficulties of implementation of projects geared to I4.0. With the support of the MCDM/A methods, it was noticed that some local systems would be able to attend the scope of the projects since it would allow a flexibilization to customize certain points of integration.
The digital factory paradigm comprises a multi-layered integration of the information related to various activities along the factory and product lifecycle manufacturing related resources. A central aspect of a digital factory is that of enabling the product lifecycle stakeholders to collaborate through the use of software solutions. The digital factory thus expands outside the actual company boundaries and offers the opportunity for the business and its suppliers to collaborate on business processes that affect the whole supply chain. This paper discusses an interoperability architecture for digital factories. To this end, it delves into the issue by analysing the main challenges that must be addressed to support an integrated and scalable factory architecture characterized by access to services, aggregation of data, and orchestration of production processes. Then, it revises the state of the art in the light of these requirements and proposes a general architectural framework conjugating the most interesting features of service-oriented architectures and data sharing architectures. The study is exemplified through a case study.
Functional requirements (FRs) are derived from perceptions of needs expressed at workshops by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) organized to identify the requirements of SMEs to introduce Industry 4.0 in their company Rather than good expressions of customer needs (CNs), SME representatives often propose partial physical solutions, such as a robot, rather than basic needs, like orient and load parts. In Axiomatic Design (AD) the CNs are used to formulate FRs, which should be solution-neutral, to provide a large solution space, facilitating creativity and innovation in the design process. The workshops, as part of Horizons 2020 EU project, aimed to gain customer needs from SME's so that these needs could be researched and answered in future research These partial solutions proposed by the SMEs are analyzed in order to reverse engineer customer needs and functional requirements. These same reverse engineering methods also could be used to derive FRs from existing design solutions and could aid inexperienced designers who struggle to generate good, solution-neutral FRs that are appropriately devoid of physical attributes. Previous works are using a similar approach to taking the customers' proposed partial solutions and reverse engineering the FRs and CNs.
Within the context of virtualization given by the Industry 4.0 paradigm, this study proposes and implements a virtual environment for industrial systems, as a tool for data monitoring and techinical capacitation in the operation and equipment maintenance. In addition to providing a detailed view of the constructive aspects of the monitored machines in 3D, the virtual assistant interfaces the acquiring data system of the industrial plant in real time, also enabling the online analysis of the operational aspects. The virtual environment of this study consists in a remote motopumps monitoring system used to refrigerate a large power generating unity. The early results indicate that the assistent can subsidize the training process of the technical equip in loco, within the operation through the monitoring system and in the process of equipments maintenance by the indication of the probable failing component on the virtual environment in real time.
The paper discusses how Industry 4.0 could impact practitioners performing maintenance in aviation. The attention has been on Augmented Reality and Additive Manufacturing, which can support maintenance tasks and spare parts production respectively. Advantages and open issues are widely discussed and couple of case studies dealing with realistic scenarios are presented to support what has been proposed by the authors. The intention is to demonstrate that AR and AM are viable tools in aviation maintenance, even if effort is necessary to develop an appropriate regulatory framework, required before the introduction of these technologies in the maintenance process. Once applied to real maintenance tasks by airline companies, the practitioning community can develop best practices and the necessary regulation pertaining to maintenance and repair of aerospace systems using AR and AM technologies.
One of the most actual and consistent driver for industry is sustainability. This topic opens at different problems according to the three sustainability pillars: environment, economic, and social. Regarding the last one, there is a lack for methodologies and tools. Moreover, industries are crossing today a crucial transition in terms of technologies. The so called fourth industrial revolution is ongoing. This is a second challenge for industries that needs to be competitive reducing their time to market integrating new technologies on their production sites. From these perspectives, this work is aimed at highlighting the role of the humans under the Industry 4.0 paradigm. A new transdisciplinary engineering method to favour the sustainable manufacturing is provided. It allows designing a connected environment (IoT framework) aimed at measuring and promoting social sustainability on production sites. The work also remarks the relationship between social sustainability and productivity. Indeed, optimizing the human works permits to improve the quality of the working conditions while improving efficiency of the production system. The case study was performed at an Italian sole producer. The goal of the analysis was to improve and innovate the finishing area of the plant from a social point of view with the perspective of digital manufacturing. An IoT framework has been installed, without affecting the productivity, and the work of 2 operators has been compared in order to identify common problems and define a synergy strategy.
Industry 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution and technological evolution from embedded systems to cyber-physical production systems. A great challenge for the future lies in the transfer of Industry 4.0 concepts and technologies to small and medium sized enterprises. Despite the expected strong potential of Industry 4.0 in small and medium sized firms, fundamental models for its introduction and application are missing. The research project titled ‘SME 4.0 – Industry 4.0 for SMEs’ aims to close and overcome this gap through the creation of an international and interdisciplinary research network working on this topic.
Technologies have been increasingly integrated into productive systems as a strategic model to change the paradigms of the current productive structure and accelerate the process of attending market requirements. In this context, organizational interoperability allows the barriers to non-integration to be identified and promote more effective actions to contribute to cooperation between productive systems. The 4th industrial revolution – Industry 4.0 – operationalizes this integration in the sense of approaching the process and the market through the dissemination of information and effective communication among stakeholders in the supply chain. Aiming this, the required attributes for Industry 4.0 implementation must be adequately identified in order to promote the success of the supply chain evolution. The multicriteria decision analysis methods – Promethee and DEMATEL – were adopted with the purpose of evaluating and prioritizing the components of the Industry 4.0 domain and associating them with the Automotive Supply Chain domain, structured from the Organizational Interoperability perspectives. The results were generated by a survey developed with academic and industry experts from the automotive supply. As a result, it was possible to identify which Automotive Supply Chain attributes are most influenced by the elements of Industry 4.0, finally allowing a greater understanding throughout interrelations between such domains.
Smart CPSs (S-CPSs) have been evolving beyond what was identified by the traditional definitions of CPSs. The objective of our research is to investigate the concepts and implementations of S-CPSs, and more specifically, the frameworks proposed for the fuzzy front end of their reasoning processes. The objectives of the paper are: (i) overview of the various framework concepts and implementations in the context of S-CPS, and (ii) analyze the presented frameworks from the points of view of reasoning processes of S-CPSs that included the concepts of structuring knowledge, building awareness, situated reasoning, decision making, and system adaptation. Our major findings are: (i) model-based and composability approaches do not support a development of S-CPSs; (ii) awareness and adaptation behaviors are considered as system level characteristics of S-CPSs that are not achieved by traditional design approaches; (iii) a new framework development should support a compositional design for reasoning in S-CPS. Based on the findings above, we argue that a development of S-CPSs should be supported by a proper framework development for compositional design of smart reasoning and coping with the challenges of compositionality requires both software-level integration and holistic fusion of knowledge by means of semantic transformations. It needs further investigation if a compositionality enabling framework should appear in the form of a meta-framework (abstract) or in the form of a semantically integrated (concrete) framework.
The development process for the new kind of Intelligent Factories and Industry 4.0 systems requires a different approach than before, because the complexity and flexibility of all industrial systems increases. The development process has to ensure that every product is manufactured at the end with an efficient production process. Under these conditions, data management and the use of simulations become more important. Furthermore, the couplings and interrelations between product and means of production play a key role in the areas of digital factory and virtual commissioning. Only by using both simulation methods it will become apparent how the product can be manufactured. But to create a virtual commissioning model, a lot of data is needed from the entire development process. This data is usually generated interdisciplinarily by people from various departments. However, today's form of data management as information transfer is only conditionally suitable for efficiently building up a digital factory as a simulation model or even making a virtual commissioning of a production system. Due to the fact that in the development process a lot of IT systems with interfaces inbetween are used, loss of information is quite common experience. This is where graph-based design languages come in. Using this modeling language approach, the product is completely digitally described and then the means of production are derived from the product properties automatically. This creates a consistent digital product life cycle from the initial product requirements to virtual commissioning.
Within the “Industrie 4.0” approach, 3D printing technology is characterized as one of the disruptive innovations. Conventional supply chains are replaced by value-added networks. The spatially distributed development of printed components, e.g. for the rapid delivery of spare parts, creates a new challenge when differentiating between “original part”, “copy” or “counterfeit” becomes necessary. This is especially true for safety-critical products. Based on these changes classicly branded products adopt the characteristics of licensing models as we know them in the areas of software and digital media. This paper describes the use of digital rights management as a key technology for the successful transition to Additive Manufacturing methods and a key for its commercial implementation and the prevention of intellectual property theft. Risks will be identified along the process chain and solution concepts are presented. These are currently being developed by an 8-partner project named SAMPL (Secure Additive Manufacturing Platform).
Reverse engineering (RE) is used in the manufacturing industry as a powerful approach to generate the digital twin of a physical object. Hereby, a data acquisition and model reconstruction methodology has been combined to resolve these issues. Such a data set often has to replace the missing original digital model. Subsequently, a model reconstruction plan has to be derived so that an editable CAD model which fulfils process requirements can be generated using standard geometry creation tools. Such a reversed engineered CAD model preferably contains form-feature based design intent and can be easily modified due to new design and manufacturing constraints. In some cases the scanned data are not complete due to the gaps in the acquisition procedure. To repair such meshes mobile low-cost scanner can be taken into account. In this paper the Microsoft HoloLens is used, a mixed reality headset. It scans the environment around and enables the user to place holograms on the real world and interact with it. To permit this experience, the HoloLens scans our environment and reconstructs a spatial mapping 3D mesh of it. So this device is used as in-door scenes 3D scanner to reconstruct a piping system. This approach is proven in reconstruction of piping systems.
This paper seeks to increase the knowledge surrounding the Filament Deposition Modelling (FDM) process by eliciting the variability in mechanical properties of printed parts. These findings are then applied in a manner that would permit the design and manufacture of parts with reliable properties. In doing this, this paper first indentifies the need to better understand the FDM manufacturing process and then defines and contextualises the work with respect to the democratisation of design and trans-disciplinary engineering. It then reviews existing literature that covers the mechanical properties of parts manufactured via FDM. Results from tensile tests showed a large variation (17%) in Ultimate Tensile Stength (UTS) of identical parts. Given this variation the paper explores whether relationships exist between mechanical properties and other part properties as a means to non-destructively determine a manufactured part's UTS. As a consequence of null hypothesis regarding the aforementioned relationships, fluctuations in extruder temperature are identified as a possible cause for the high variability and subsequently characterised via thermal imaging. This characterisation reveals a correlation between variation in UTS and temperature fluctuations that is found to be consistent with existing literature. Correspondingly, data from the tensile tests is presented as a statistical model that can be used to predict confidence in manufacturing a part with acceptable mechanical properties.
The success parameters for any projects are jeopardized by risk factors. The main barriers to effective risk management are related to the process by itself (identifying, analyzing, responding and monitoring), and with the parameters related to project risk. This paper intends to determine factors for identifying and analyzing risks in project management in automaker digital manufacturing projects. The main objective of the research is to provide a study of risk identification and classification with a list of authors that studied that subject, where the project manager can efficiently use during the project planning, regarding the next step of project risk management. The research design is desktop study, based on the process of a critical literature review with a focus on information systems and business research papers, books, case study from a manufacturer and theoretical articles, etc. Data analysis use the mechanism of triangulation for producing an assessment exercise of the digital manufacturing practices adopted by the company. The manufacturing engineering team could insert the new model into their day by day work reaching opportunities and mitigating threats/risks. The findings bring the risk structure (risk ontology) where the risks are classified in the following aspects: technical risks, people risks, organizational risks and vendors risks. Risks need to be managed from the beginning by identifying them, assessing their likelihood and possible impact, and preparing an overall action plan to deal with them.
In the aerospace industry, Additive Manufacturing (AM) is quickly gaining ground. When optimizing the design of an AM component, all life-cycle aspects need to be considered. It is by no means limited to the classic weight/stiffness optimization of the topology alone. The AM component design must comply with an array of requirements on for example assembly, maintenance and inspection. In addition, there are the manufacturability requirements and constraints of the printing procedure itself, including component orientation and support structures. In this paper, a proposal on how to integrate the AM design of components with the design of the complete engine structure is presented. To find how the current design process is conducted, an interview study involving design and manufacturing experts has been made at an aerospace company, forming a base for the proposal. The result is that a primary design procedure for the AM component must be made as a separate step involving a limited set of design considerations prior to making a multidisciplinary evaluation of the proposed engine structure.
Nowadays, engineers and designer are forced to conduct their work quickly and efficiently. That led to introduction and development of many computer-based tools, which aid the process of designing. One of those methods is a topology optimization, which can be used in many branches of industry, such as an automotive or aerospace industry, where many shells and monocoque structures are used, for which this method is very useful. It is an iteration approach that allows obtaining optimal results of material's placement and continuity in a construction, as well as its properties and thickness, in accordance with introduced loads, boundary conditions and needed shape. That allows the designer to obtain needed stiffness and strength of the design, with minimum weight and usage of resources. There are many ways to conduct the topology optimization and one the simplest is considering the material as isotropic and homogenous, which greatly simplifies the calculations and reduces needed time. Nevertheless, the composite structure, especially laminates, should be considered as orthotropic and heterogeneous. The process of topology optimization is shown in the case of preparing the concept solution for lightweight, shell-based support system for an electrical UrbanConcept class vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon. The description of the outer shape, loads acting on the structure and boundary conditions connected with other subsystems were described, as well as the preparation of the computer model and the process of topology optimization using Altair HyperWorks software. Additionally, the results were presented and a final solution obtained basing on them.
Rapid prototyping (RP) is a set of technologies that permits building a physical model directly from its design by implementing a single automatic process using a 3D model of the object to be printed. RP systems can be based on different Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as a Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) machine that works by extruding and melting together fused plastic filaments, drawing the boundaries and filling the model thin layer by thin layer. Low-cost FDM 3d printers do not work well automatically but require of a calibration phase because the best configuration settings in the slicing software are unknown, and the number of parameters values that needs to be manually defined is very large. The scientific literature reports many interesting articles on this topic, describing how the process can be improved by choosing the correct values of various parameters. Internet websites such RepRap.org discuss 3D printers and ppost detailed FAQ sections where users described improvements in 3D printing with simple methods but with great effort in terms of costs and time. Yet not all questions are answered. This paper would introduces: a) a new method for the analysis of the slicing software parameters that can be done with easy models; b) a second method for improving the effects of the parameters that shows a higher influence in the signal-to-noise ratio analysis.
In the past few years, Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) utilisation has increased significantly. The high cost of manufactured products is the main barrier for the implementation of this technology in mass production. This implies that companies need to search the cost-efficient way to remain competitive. The aim of this study is to develop a cost model and software tool while addressing the issues and challenges confronted in the previous developed AM cost models. It focuses on two processes viz. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). Despite the current high initial investment, a growth of these technologies in various sectors such as aerospace, automotive, medical and electronics has driven a decrease of the machine purchase price. In addition, this growth has reduced the manufacturing cost, owing to the learning curve effect. A high-level cost model has been developed to combine cost information of SLS and EBM processes for metals. The software tool analyse the data through cost model and gives trends and current distribution of the main cost drivers; both the machine cost and material cost decreased slightly, however, post-processing cost increased significantly and became the second highest cost. This study enhances the ALM development in industries giving a new insight and details of the current state of this new technology. Moreover, it will benefit the industries in ALM market knowledge in terms of manufacturing costs.
The continuous spread of additive manufacturing also raises the question of what procedure to recommend when changing the manufacturing method of already constructed parts from injection molding to additive manufacturing. To answer this question, the differences between the two manufacturing processes and the respective end products are first presented. Based on this presentation, a concept for the adaptation of the CAD models affected by the changeover is developed. The goal is a procedural change that is as complication-free as possible. At the end, the finished concept will be reviewed in terms of its utility and its applicability to a specific example. In addition, a boundary between the CAD model adaptation and a new design of the components is drawn in the sense of a stress-related design.
With the advancing digital transformation, verification and validation with simulations is getting more and more important. Reduced hardware testing and shortening of development times require a significant boost in digital vehicle development. The Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) is a tool independent standard to support both, model exchange and co-simulation of behavior models using a combination of xml-files and compiled C-code. In this paper the increasing importance of interllectual property protection within the scenario of cross-company collaboration is discussed. A recommended process to secure IP including a complete decision-making chain, from analyzing the simulation model and identifying the IP, classification of security level and usage, identification of the threads to the IP and eventually choosing of appropriate protection mechanisms is presented. Subsequently, an analysis of the current technical landscape for necessary IP protection measures reveals the need for action within the field of digital rights management/license management, and the use of state-of-the-art source code obfuscation as a technical measures.
New products are created for humans with the purpose of attending needs in the most varied contexts of their lives, therefore understanding these needs and meeting them through products that generate effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction and good experiences is essential for business sustainability. Fields such as Ergonomics, Usability, User Experience (UX), Psychology and Anthropology are focused on studying these needs, and they have been applied to different types of products and services. Due to several updates in these areas and recent applications in digital products, there is an opportunity to update and structure the application of human-centered qualitative studies in physical Product Development Processes. The aim of this article is to identify main relevant studies about Human and User-Centered Product Development in the past 10 years and to reflect about new research opportunities. The research was carried out on Capes portal platform (Brazilian Government Scientific Database), which includes 532 databases, as well as through analysis of results, identifying fields of research, methodologies and themes such as the types of products studied. The results show interesting studies and gaps, proving that there are still opportunities to develop structured methods for Human and User-Centered Design for Physical Product Development, and that these developments can contribute for a better business sustainability.