Terrorism, and the radicalization of terrorists in particular, has become a focus for academics and practitioners in recent years. However, the concept of radicalization has a variety of definitions, and this is due in part to its relationship to other concepts with no clearly agreed definition, such as terrorism. Clarifying the intellectual background is important if the various trends in radicalization are to be properly understood. A clear picture of such trends is essential for the analysis of the radicalization process which will enable law enforcement agencies, academics and policymakers to develop tactics and strategies to counter such radicalization. This book presents the proceedings of the NATO 2010 Advanced Research Workshop on Developing Prevention Strategies and Tactics in Countering Radicalization, held in Antalya, Turkey, in December 2010. This workshop reviewed the process through which an individual becomes radicalized, examining the concept of radicalization and presenting comparative perspectives from different countries. It sought to propose a model of prevention policy to target radicalization and present the fundamental dynamics of preventing radicalization. Topics addressed include militant identity building procedure, how radicalization is financed and preventive strategies to counter the use of sophisticated weapons. The book is an important addition to the field of countering terrorism and will be of interest to all practitioners, academics and policymakers involved in this endeavor.
For the last couple of years, terrorism and particularly radicalization has become a focal point for academicians and practitioners. The concept of radicalization has variety of definitions. To some extent, it is partly because its relation to other concepts that do not have agreed upon definitions such as terrorism. Creating the intellectual background is important for being able to comprehend different trends in radicalization.
Such trends will enable us to analyze radicalization process so that the law enforcement agencies, academicians, and other policy makers can develop tactics and strategies to counter radicalization. Understanding the recruitment process will help the security forces to develop new strategies and tactics to counter such a threat.
The objective of this workshop is to; a) review the process, through which an individual becomes radicalized, b) examine the concept of radicalization, c) present the comparative perspective from different countries, d) propose a model of prevention policy targeting radicalization, and e) present the fundamental dynamics in preventing radicalization.
This book includes the proceedings from the NATO 2010 Advanced Research Workshop (ARW 983994) on “Developing Prevention Strategies and Tactics in Countering Radicalization,” which was held in Antalya, Turkey on 7-9, December 2010. The workshop, which was sponsored by the NATO, was co-organized by Ihsan Bal from Turkey and Nawal Ammar from Egypt. The workshop was hosted by the International Center for Terrorism and Transnational Crime (UTSAM) at the Turkish National Police Academy. UTSAM was established in 2007 under the Department of Research Centers of the Turkish National Police Academy. With its highly qualified and specialized team of researchers, UTSAM merges theory with practice and generates information particularly for decision-makers and practitioners in various fields of security such as terrorism, organized crime, transnational crime, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, drug trafficking, and cybercrime.
This book is organized in line with the issues presented at the workshop. Accordingly, since radicalization encompasses several dynamics, this book include issues, ranging from radicalization process, which involves militant identity building procedure, financing these activities, preventive strategies to the use of sophisticated weapons such as nuclear arms.
Understanding and comprehending radicalization process in terrorist organizations will open new avenues for response strategies. Through this workshop, current prevention strategies are examined and those which are effective and productive have been addressed in light of current data.
The chapters in this book include micro and macro level of issues which dictates a multi-faceted approach to radicalization. Therefore the name of the book is entitled as “Multi-faceted Approach to Radicalization in Terrorist Organizations.”
We hope that this book will be an added value in the field of countering terrorism for the practitioners, academia, and policy makers.
The purpose of this chapter is to reveal the introductory aspects of this book. This book includes the proceedings from the NATO 2010 Advanced Research Workshop (ARW 983994) on “Developing Prevention Strategies and Tactics in Countering Radicalization,” which was held in Antalya, Turkey on 7-9, December 2010.
Although it is commonly known to many that PKK is a terrorist group, there are still some who state the otherwise. This study has been carried out with this aim so that the terrorist vs. guerilla debate can be revisited and conclusions can be reached at. In order to be able to do so, this time a different methodology is used which is the Analysis of Competing Hypotheses (ACH) software, which is an analytical tool used in intelligence analysis. Similar results have been obtained, but the new way of obtaining them is of interest to anyone who wants to learn more about analytical tools.
Perception about terrorism over the globe has drastically shifted after 9/11. The U.S centered “war on terrorism” approach dominates strategies in countering terrorism exploiting religion. It appears that the war on terrorism approach has brought enormous extent of unintended consequences and eased radicalization process. To generate a better strategy, research played a key role in countering terrorist group exploiting religious. In that sense, this paper aims to explore the relationship between the micro-level factors and involvement in violent acts in the Turkish Hizbullah, the notorious terrorist organization exploiting religion in Turkey. The biographies of 1500 Hizbullah members were the main data source. After a content analysis, biographies were coded in numbers and a data set was created. Logistic regression was conducted on this data set to predict the factors associated with violence. Results showed that age at time of joining the organization, number of years in the organization and unemployment significantly predict Turkish Hizbullah members who involve in violent acts.
This paper examine the prevalence of radicalization beliefs and thoughts among university student, also it examines the differences in radicalization between males and females. A convenient sample of 190 students (Mutah University, Jordan) was selected. A measurement tool for the radicalization based on the literature review was developed. A reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha = 0.61) was found for the research tool. The average percentage of the prevalence of the radical beliefs was 64.4% among the university students. Radical beliefs like martyrdom, unity by force, hatred & jihad were highly prevailed among university students. Findings raised the attention to the university security and encountering radical beliefs dissemination among university students. Security policies are needed to prevent hijacking the university by radicalism, and transiting the university as incubator for radicalization and path to terrorism. Further researches are needed with large sample size and with more a testable research instrument.
Oguzhan Omer Demir, Oguzhan Basibuyuk, Onder Karakus
42 - 60
Based on quantitative data obtained from 467 handwritten background reports prepared by members of Turkish Hizbullah, this study examines the relationship between some individual and social characteristics of the militants and radicalization process in this terrorist organization. There are basically three basic categories into which the members of the organization can be placed: 1) low level; members who only joined the lectures of the organization, 2) middle level; members who have any kind of responsibility in the organization, and 3) high level; members who are in military wing. In order to legitimize its activities, the organization abuses the religious concepts ideologically. The findings regarding the level of religiosity of the members, however, are quite surprising. That is, before-joining religiosity level of the military wing members is the lowest when before-joining religiosity levels of the members in all three categories are concerned. The results concerning the level of practicing religious practices among members are also consistent with previous findings.
Following the September 11th terrorist attacks and the subsequent loss of its headquarters in Afghanistan, Al Qaeda had to adapt its structure, operating procedures, and tactics to survive. Al Qaeda has become a constantly evolving entity that is continually moving into new regions of operation and developing novel tactics to perpetrate its attacks. Today the guidelines of what classifies an individual as an Al Qaeda operative are not as clear as they were prior to September 11, 2001. Many so called Al Qaeda members have never received formal training and have not had contact with Al Qaeda's senior leadership. Consequently, this paper will propose a political movement paradigm from which to view and understand Al Qaeda. Through this paradigm Al Qaeda's structural and tactical evolution from its pre-September 11th form into its current state will be examined, paying special attention to the implications this transformation has on Western counterterrorism strategies.
The role of social projects in preventing radicalization and terrorism has received a growing attention in recent years. After realizing the fact that disinformation and lack of communication are among main issues feeding terrorism in the Eastern and the Southeastern Anatolia, police departments have implemented 56 social projects in 25 cities in the region since 2008 to cope with such problems. These projects can be grouped under a few headlines according to their target groups and planned activities. Feedbacks from the participants and thoughts of the police chiefs who took roles as projects managers were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of these projects. In addition, terrorists' confessions, meeting records and reports by some terrorist groups, intelligence reports, and some additional information were used to assess the results of the projects. In conclusion, the study has found that social projects have been found to be effective in preventing through improved communication between the State and the public.
The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the core American cities shocked the world. Since then, terrorists indoctrinated by radicals, exploiting religion of Islam targeted various cities around the world such as London, Madrid, Istanbul, Jakarta, and Manila bombings to count a few. At the same time, unilateralist policies of the George W. Bush Administration triggered an unprecedented wave of anti-Americanism worldwide. More critically, unfavorable views toward the United States soared among Muslims, even in Turkey, a NATO ally since 1952. Observing these significant developments taking place simultaneously puts forward a puzzle that needs to be untangled. In search of an answer to this puzzle, I draw on Pew Key Indicators Database that surveys variables such as American image and perceptions of terrorists among Muslims. The article analyzes the relationship between those ongoing critical tendencies in world politics that are likely to have significant implications for states with predominantly Muslim populations and their relations with the Western countries.
This article focuses on the development of counterterrorism strategies between 1960 and 2010 in three democratic European countries - France, Germany and the United Kingdom. What becomes clear is that the strategies used by these countries were predicated on each country's historical response to terrorism. For example, the demilitarization of Germany after 1945 and the poor showing at the Munich debacle; the UK reliance on internment from the Boer War through Malaya, Kenya, Palestine and the Irish troubles; and the French experience in Indo-China and North Africa. These strategies have been amplified by changes in the political environment of each country in the aftermath of World War Two and the post-colonial struggles that followed. Thus, this paper suggests that each country is tethered to its historical and political past.
This research examines problems and gaps existing in implementation process of money laundering policies from a policy implementation perspective and provides suggestions for the effectiveness of the policy implementation. Money laundering problem emerged as a serious threat for the countries because it was recognized as the primary source to contribute terrorist financing right after 9/11. New money laundering regulations and reformations were formulated and implemented by national and international entities after 9/11 in order to exterminate the ways of terrorist financing. The US Government and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) have played major role to reform money laundering policies during this period. However, dynamic structure of globalized financial and social world produced inconsistent trends with the implementation of policies in the field by creating new gaps and threats against money laundering policies. Terrorist groups have the ability to track gaps in the systems and try to be financed with new techniques and technologies. Especially, technological improvements mitigate the process since money laundering policies are not dynamic.
Transnational organized crime and terrorism have been viewed as distinct entities. However, much attention has been given in recent years on the complex linkages between the two phenomena and on the extent to which their possible merging calls for the application of a homogeneous anti-crime and anti-terror policy. The present article investigates the factual nexus between terrorism and organized crime in order to ascertain substantial similarities and differences. It moves beyond a discussion on merely the evident factual links by tracing the definitional distinctions between the two phenomena in order to question the validity of a merging ‘war on terror’ and ‘war on crime’ policy. The UK anti-terrorism and counter-organized crime is examined as a case study challenging the validity of the arguments for merging policies.
This study explores social causes of mafia-type crimes in Turkey. Some scholars view organized crimes and terrorism as different forms; however, others argue that there are some links between terrorism and organized crime. The most important link between the two crimes is grounded on economic gain. Organized crimes have spread out in Turkey very quickly by suppressing and threatening the public. In fact, organized crimes using violence, torture and threat against individuals have become a very important issue. The seriousness of the phenomena increased when the fact that PKK and other terrorist organizations have relationships which are grounded on economic gain. Mafia-type organizations utilized violence in order to gain profit, to collect tribute, to protect someone by pecuniary consideration and to collect checks and vouchers. The violence has become more intimidating when considering the use of a brutal terrorist organizations name. Therefore, they have become a threat for the Turkish public order, social relations and social peace. This study is the first study to explain mafia-type crimes by employing social disorganization theory. Negative binomial regression analysis is conducted to analyze the data. The analysis reveals that unemployment, poverty, and the number of religious institutions have turned out to be statistically significant effect on the occurrence of mafia-type organized crime in cities. However, family disruption, residential mobility, number of disorders and number of voluntary associations do not exert statistically significant effect on the distribution of mafia type crimes in cities.
Employing a quantitative technique on a large sample size (N=4996), this study aimed to understand spatial and temporal distribution of terrorist incidents in Istanbul, Turkey by a specific focus on targets. Rational choice, crime pattern, social disorganization, and routine activity theories covered the theoretical background. A number of determinants of terrorist incidents were tested on terrorists' target selection. Week days, type of offences, and type of terrorist organizations were found to have an important impact on target selection. Some terrorist groups, several types of offences and weekend days were found to be determinative on specific targets. Theories that were used to examine the relationship between target selection and other variables were statistically supported. In this regard, current study not only made an invaluable contribution to discussed theories in general, but also offered some practical solutions for law enforcement and public administration agencies.
The events of 9/11 marked a turning point, and the world has entered a new era where there are highly capable global terrorist organizations acting like a single global network. In this new era, we are witnessing a new kind of arms race in which terrorist groups are racing to have nuclear weapons. The massive and instantaneous destruction of life and property that would result from detonation of a nuclear weapon makes this a priority for terrorists. Therefore, this paper aims to shed lights on the smuggling of nuclear materials and evaluates the possible response to this threat.
Terrorism is one of the most defining issues affecting social and economic lives in postmodern age. Does it affect public administration? Findings indicate that terrorism affects public service and causes various side effects. Lack of coproduction between public employees and citizens is a significant effect of terrorism. Similarly, public programs, strategies, and public servants' discretion are also affected. Law enforcement and safety and security services become the main concern for public service, leading to budget decreases for other governmental services. Accordingly, this negatively influences production and provision of certain services and goods as well as capacity of public organizations to implement different programs. Accountability in public sector becomes problematic since bureaucratic power increases asymmetrically. Finally, many high qualified public officials hesitate to work in terror-experiencing regions and this decreases quality of public service and causes personnel problems.
Radicalization encompasses many issues which mandate those who are responsible for countering it to have a multi-faceted approach. Three main sources of complexity in radicalization include 1) the definition of the concept of radicalization, 2) process, through which individual becomes a member of a terrorist organization, 3) counter-radicalization strategies, which has two folds; prevention and de-radicalization. The only way to have effective and result-oriented countering radicalization strategy is to comprehend this complexity, which requires joint effort at the national, regional and international level.
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