This chapter analyses the impact of Russia's counter-terrorism policies on society since the start of the second war in Chechnya in 1999. The authors show how the authorities have used the campaign against terrorism to crackdown on a wide variety of civil liberties, with strong popular support. Unfortunately, the extensive use of violence against Muslims in Russia has sometimes been counter-productive, alienating many members of this community. Since there is no real mechanism for society to provide feedback to the state, government officials have not taken action to correct their policies. In its legal and public policy responses to terrorism, Russia has adopted broad laws that limit the rights of society as a whole and more specific laws that focus on the terrorists themselves. A successful amnesty allowed many individuals to exit the ranks of the fighters.
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