The War on Terrorism (WOT) that has been unleashed by the United States government and its alliance partners over the last few years has ironically resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties globally. This has occurred through state sponsored military strikes in countries like Afghanistan and Iraq, where non-combatant civilians usually became victims of such military action. Such acts have incited the emergence of many more non-state militant groupings that are intent on pursuing violence as a means of responding to the War on Terror. Inevitably, civilians have become caught between state and non-state actors who are both advancing militant violence in order to achieve political objectives. This chapter attempts to unpack the complex dynamics of the WOT, by arguing that it is critical for civil society to become more pro-actively engaged in challenging both governments and non-state militants as regards their involvement in this war, as well as to reframe the paradigm within which terrorism is understood and ultimately perpetrated. In essence, civil society needs to demand accountability from governments whose policies are arguably the root cause of much of the contemporary terrorism that we see unfolding before us.
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