The areas of relevance to the participants and the program objectives: First, how humans - children and their families - cope with ongoing threats, as well as the impact of long term threats, repeated exposure to trauma, and warfare and its aftermath. Second, the importance of cultural considerations and sensitivities related to the expression of symptoms, evaluation and treatment. Third, questions about whether there is a post warfare and terrorism mental syndrome. Fourth, issues of preparation/readiness including community preparedness, training of responders, development of family and school plans, and consideration of developmental needs. Fifth, response at the time of terrorist attacks and warfare including immediate needs, expectable reactions successful coping and worrisome reactions. Sixth, recovery including reduction, persistence or worsening of symptoms, as well as development of new symptoms. Seventh, when and how to carry out mental health evaluations and treatment taking into account developmental considerations, cultural values and resources. Eighth, resilience including the important components of successful coping and resilience, how resilience differs from resistance, and long term implications of resilience. Ninth, the needs of responders including respectful training of indigenous practitioners, compassionate reactions, counter transference and burnout, concerns about safety, family safety and family worries, and management of stress and personal difficulties. Tenth, issues of hope, altruism, spirituality and personal meaning with individual's wishes to know where they are going - going forward to something - while knowing where they have been and integrating the traumas they have experienced.