There is never enough money to pay all the costs of all aspects of research in all fields of study. Most costs of fundamental research are borne by government budgets. The political competition for governmental funds is intense. Adequate governmental support of the costs of fundamental research depends heavily on the demonstrated results of past research investments. The past record of a research-performing institution depends upon the cumulative successes of its individual principal investigators who have conducted specific projects. Project selection mechanisms affect the eventual record of accomplishment at the individual, and therefore institutional, level. The most effective evaluation mechanism is peer review at the individual research project – principal investigator level. Peer review must be provided by other active researchers in the same field who do not work at the same institution or otherwise have a conflict of interest.
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