Globalisation of the market economy has a great impact on connections between scientific research work and creation as well as the use of technologies. Therefore, it is not surprising that national science policies changed a great deal in the 1990s. The socio-economic research environment and, consequently, the concepts and practice of research policies have also changed under the influence of research politics.
In the centre of science policy-making is the realisation about the positive effect of scientific research work on economic growth and success and thus on social welfare. Increasing support for research is, therefore, not surprising. Many European countries realise that knowledge is the most important factor influencing economic growth and, accordingly, employment and welfare. On the other hand, a knowledge-based economy and society requires that innovations and innovation activities have a very important role. Therefore, the establishment and growth of innovation enterprises, a regulatory environment that fosters innovation, an improvement in “interim links” in the innovation system, and positive social inclinations for innovations must be encouraged.
Differences between research, technology, innovation and industry politics are decreasing. The integration of science and innovation policy is becoming prevalent.
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