Governments are frequently involved in processes of administrative and policy reform. The reforms associated with the New Public Management (NPM) have been one of the largest and most sustained periods of reform, rivaling in magnitude if not in speed, those occurring during World War II in the history of the public sector. The emphasis on autonomous organizations and autonomous managers during the past several decades has created a number of benefits for the public sector and for citizens. However, the creation of high levels of autonomy created significant problems in the levels of coordination within the public service, with the paradoxical outcome that even if the performance of individual programs was being improved, the overall performance of government may have been decreased. There have been a variety of responses to the problems created by such reforms. The reaction to the continuing issues of policy coordination, as well as the increased demands for performance resulting from NPM. require governments to develop mechanisms for producing better coordinated and more effective governance schemes. These responses range from returning to well-worn paths for producing more effective integration of policy to more innovative solutions.
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