The nations of South Asia were the first among the developing countries to receive their independence from the British, immediately after World War II. These nations share a common administrative style and bureaucratic culture, which flow from their imperial legacy. However, a quick mapping expedition reveals the presence and resilience of the classical administrative style of India, which continued to be present until the end of the 12th Century, in spite of repeated invasions from Alexander the Great to those of the Scythians, Huns, Afghans and Turks. This was modified somewhat when Mohamed Ghuri established Muslim rule in the region. Thereafter, the five centuries of Muslim governance were followed by 200 years of British rule. Thus, there emerged, in South Asia, a high degree of convergence between the ancient Hindu culture and subsequent Islamic and Christian values systems. As a consequence of this, the administrative tradition of India and its neighbours shows three distinct characteristics: persistence from classical times, convergence with the Islamic and Christian mores and patterns, as well as some divergence in the wake of independence. This chapter examines these features. It also explores the challenges which the countries of the region face today. Foremost among them are politicisation of the bureaucracy, the need to fight corruption and the difficulty of reforming entrenched bureaucratic procedures. The chapter concludes by suggesting that, despite these daunting challenges, the process of modernisation is slowly taking hold and opening new prospects for a vibrant, inclusive and empowered India and neighbouring South Asian states.