Accumulating evidence show that the gut microbiota is deeply involved not only in host nutrient metabolism but also in immune function, endocrine regulation, and chronic disease. In neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the gut-brain axis, the bidirectional interaction between the brain and the gut, provides new route of pathological spread and potential therapeutic targets. Although studies of gut microbiota have been conducted mainly in mice, mammalian gut microbiota is highly diverse, complex, and sensitive to environmental changes. Drosophila melanogaster, a fruit fly, has many advantages as a laboratory animal: short life cycle, numerous and genetically homogenous offspring, less ethical concerns, availability of many genetic models, and low maintenance costs. Drosophila has a simpler gut microbiota than mammals and can be made to remain sterile or to have standardized gut microbiota by simple established methods. Research on the microbiota of Drosophila has revealed new molecules that regulate the brain-gut axis, and it has been shown that dysbiosis of the fly microbiota worsens lifespan, motor function, and neurodegeneration in AD and PD models. The results shown in fly studies represents a fundamental part of the immune and proteomic process involving gut-microbiota interactions that are highly conserved. Even though the fly’s gut microbiota are not simple mimics of humans, flies are a valuable system to learn the molecular mechanisms of how the gut microbiota affect host health and behavior.