In order to improve the working efficiency of excitation device of jujube harvester, an excitation device was designed by using eccentric block excitation mechanism. Through the combination of theoretical analysis and virtual simulation, the mass of eccentric block m, the motor speed n, the spring preload f were determined as test factors, and the angular acceleration α and amplitude A were used as evaluation indexes to carry out the combined test of orthogonal rotating center with three factors and five levels. First, this paper shows the maximum instantaneous angular acceleration α and the maximum amplitude A in space of the marking point of shift lever through 3D high-speed camera technology. Then, the Design-Expert v18.104.22.168 software was used for analysis of variance of experimental results, established the mathematical regression model of evaluation index and various relevant factors, and analyzed the influence of significant factors on evaluation index and optimized the test parameters. Final, the optimal parameters were determined as follows: eccentric mass m = 233 g, motor speed n = 1080 r/min, spring preload f = 35 N. According to the combination of optimal parameters, the results shown that under the optimal combination of parameters, the average amplitude was A = 46.73 mm, the average angular acceleration was α = 11.72 rad/s2, and the minimum inertia force generated by shell vibration was F = 9.87 N. It could be seen that the excitation device satisfies the requirements for jujube harvesting. The study may provide theoretical basis and technical reference for the improvement of the excitation system of the jujube harvester.