Humans have astounding reasoning capabilities. They can learn from very few examples while providing explanations for their decision-making process. In contrast, deep learning techniques–even though robust to noise and very effective in generalizing across several fields including machine vision, natural language understanding, speech recognition, etc. –require large amounts of data and are mostly unable to provide explanations for their decisions. Attaining human-level robust reasoning requires combining sound symbolic reasoning with robust connectionist learning. However, connectionist learning uses low-level representations–such as embeddings–rather than symbolic representations. This challenge constitutes what is referred to as the Neuro-Symbolic gap. A field of study to bridge this gap between the two paradigms has been called neuro-symbolic integration or neuro-symbolic computing. This chapter aims to present approaches that contribute towards bridging the Neuro-Symbolic gap specifically in the Semantic Web field, RDF Schema (RDFS) and EL+ reasoning and to discuss the benefits and shortcomings of neuro-symbolic reasoning.
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