The Adams Forward Bend Test recognizes the rotational aspect of the curve with the spine in flexion, and the AP X-ray measures the coronal plane deviation by using the Cobb Angle. However, modern techniques including CT-scan, biplanar radiograph, ultrasound, and surface topography allow the clinician to better evaluate and visualize the true 3-D nature of the spine. Surface Topography imaging uses the surface of the trunk to estimate the spine position using a mathematical algorithm that has been found to be accurate when compared to the radiologic Cobb Angle. The sagittal balance of the spine measured by surface topography is compared in three different situations, namely, “standing up straight,” “standing relaxed,” and “walking,” which will help to best assess posture and risk of proximal junctional kyphosis before and after the treatment. Coronal imbalance (lateral deviation) and a range of maximal vertebral surface rotation (amplitude in either direction) are considered as the parameters with an excellent to good reproducibility. COP displacement or symmetry from the midline is used to measure the stability of the trunk. Therefore, those selected spine shape parameters and COP deviation would be considered as the best descriptors in the assessment of postural sway and outcome of PSSE in children with AIS.
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