Prospective, concurrent-cohort study. To establish the relationship between radiographic alignment parameters and functional CoE measurements at one week before and at three months after realignment surgery in ADS patients. Adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) represents a significant healthcare burden with exceedingly high and increasing prevalence, particularly among the elderly. Radiographic alignment measures and patient-reported outcomes currently serve as the standard means to assess spinal alignment, deformity, and stability. Neurological examinations have served as qualitative measures for indicating muscle strength, motor deficits, and gait abnormalities. Three-Dimensional motion analysis is increasingly being used to identify and measure gait and balance instability. Recently, techniques have been established to quantify balance characteristics described by Dubousset as the “cone of economy” (CoE). The relationship between radiographic alignment parameters and CoE balance measures of ADS patients before and after realignment surgery is currently unknown. 29 ADS patients treated with realignment surgery. Patients were evaluated at one week before realignment surgery and at their three-month follow-up examination. During each evaluation, patients completed self-reported outcomes (visual analog scales for pain, Oswestry Disability Index, SRS22r) and a functional balance test. Mean changes in dependent measures from before to after surgery were compared using paired t-tests. Pearson correlations were used to test for significant correlations between changes in radiographic and CoE measures. Significant improvements were found for all patient-reported outcomes, in several radiographic measures, and in CoE measures. Improvements of scoliosis Cobb angle, coronal pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis showed significant correlations with CoE sway and total distance measures at both the center of mass and center of the head. Improved radiographic alignment measures significantly correlated with improved CoE balance measures among ADS patients treated with realignment surgery at their three-month follow-up. These findings indicate that functional balance evaluations when used in conjunction with radiographic measurements, may provide a more robust and improved patient-specific sensitivity for postoperative assessments. CoE balance may represent a new measure of added value for surgical intervention of ADS.