Hospital-acquired infections, particularly in ICU, are becoming more frequent in recent years, with the most serious of them being Gram-negative bacterial infections. Among them, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are considered the most resistant bacteria encountered in ICU and other wards. Given the fact that about 24 hours are usually required to perform common antibiotic resistance tests after the bacteria identification, the use of machine learning techniques could be an additional decision support tool in selecting empirical antibiotic treatment based on the sample type, bacteria, and patient’s basic characteristics. In this article, five machine learning (ML) models were evaluated to predict antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We suggest implementing ML techniques to forecast antibiotic resistance using data from the clinical microbiology laboratory, available in the Laboratory Information System (LIS).
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