Hybrid threats represent one of the rising challenges to the safe and effective management of digital systems worldwide. The deliberate misuse or disruption of digital technologies has wide-ranging applications in fields as diverse as medical treatment, to social media, to military operations and homeland security. Despite growing concern of cyber threats within multiple government agencies and international organizations, few strategies of effective hybrid threat management have emerged that simultaneously help organizations avoid or prevent disruptions following hybrid threats, as well as to facilitate organizational recovery and adaptation when such disruptions occur. Resilience-based decision-making serves as one avenue that may help policymakers and other key stakeholders address this challenge by analyzing the nested interdependencies and social resilience upon various digital systems for sources of information, data storage, and device operation and management. We offer one such theoretical discussion of resilience in this area through a systems approach that integrates threats and dependencies related to infrastructural, informational, and social considerations.
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