On March 11, 2011, the strongest earthquake ever recorded in Japan triggered a powerful tsunami and caused a nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear plant. That “man-made” disaster had immense effects on people’s lives, health and property, infrastructure, supply chains, economy, policies, natural and institutional environment, and more. This chapter assesses the preparedness for and the agri-food impacts of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, identifies challenges in post-disaster recovery, and summarizes the lessons learned for improving disaster risk management. Japan was not well prepared for such a huge disaster, and the agri-food sector and consumption were among the worst-hit areas. The triple disaster was a rare but high-impact event; therefore it is necessary to “prepare for the unexpected”. Risk assessment is to include diverse hazards and multiple effects of a likely disaster, it is to be discussed with all stakeholders, and measures must be taken to train for complex disasters. It is necessary to modernize property rights, regulations, safety standards, and norms, as well as to improve the capability and coordination of responsible public and private actors. It is important to set up mechanisms for effective public resource allocation and reduction of agents’ costs. Different elements of the agri-food chain have dissimilar capabilities, requiring differential public support. There is a strong regional interdependency of agrarian, food, and rural assets (and damages), and it is important to properly locate risk and take prevention and recovery measures. Disaster response demonstrated the important role of small-scale farms and food organizations; high efficiency for private, market, and collective governance; and international cooperation. Before, during, and after a disaster, all available information from all sources is to be immediately publicized in understandable form through all means. Disasters provide an opportunity to discuss, introduce, and implement fundamental changes in policies relating to agriculture, the economy, regional governance, energy, and disaster management. It is important to learn from past experiences and make sure that lessons learned are not forgotten.