The so-called “armed jihad” has been traditionally understood as an activity reserved for men, who were the ones sacrificing their lives, if needed, as martyrs for the cause of Allah. However, contemporary Islamist terrorism has been introducing constant updates depending on the circumstances and the operational needs, showing a greater increase in the involvement of women in the “armed jihad.” In this regard, over the last 15 years, women have even been used in suicide operations, especially in Russia and Iraq, where terrorists exploited the role of women precisely because they were a rare and surprising element when perpetrating an attack. This essay investigates the role of women in terrorist activity, specifically those involved in Daesh from the context of Spain in relation to the foreign terrorist fighter (FTF) phenomenon.
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