Before a combinatorial problem can be solved by current SAT methods, it must usually be encoded in conjunctive normal form, which facilitates algorithm implementation and allows a common file format for problems. Unfortunately there are several ways of encoding most problems and few guidelines on how to choose among them, yet the choice of encoding can be as important as the choice of search algorithm. This chapter reviews theoretical and empirical work on encoding methods, including the use of Tseitin encodings, the encoding of extensional and intensional constraints, the interaction between encodings and search algorithms, and some common sources of error. Case studies are used for illustration.
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