Th epast five years have seen an enormous development in the field of fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. The proteins that constitute the foundation for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests for the classical AD pathologies are now being explored as potential blood-based biomarkers, thanks to the recent implementation of ultrasensitive measurement technologies in academic and clinical laboratories worldwide. The current blood-derived data are still less clear than those obtained using CSF as the sample type, but independent research suggests that there are biomarker signals in blood that relate to plaque and tangle pathologies in AD, which are relevant to explore further. Additionally, neurofilament light has emerged as the first robust blood-based biomarker for neurodegeneration in a broad range of central nervous system disorders, as well as for acute brain injuries. Here, we briefly recapitulate the first and second waves of fluid biomarker analysis in AD, i.e., the development and validation of established and novel CSF biomarkers for the disorder, followed by a focused discussion on blood-based biomarkers for AD, which we describe as the third wave of fluid biomarker analysis that hopefully will gain further momentum during the coming five years.
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