Nonlinear optics deals with phenomena that occur when a very intense light interacts with a material medium, modifying its optical properties. Shortly after the demonstration of first working laser in 1960 by Maiman (Nature, 187 (1960) 493), the field of nonlinear optics began with the observation of second harmonic by Franken et al. in 1961 (Phys. Rev. Lett., 7 (1961) 118). Since then, the interest in this field has grown and various nonlinear optical effects are utilized for purposes such as nonlinear microscopy, switching, harmonic generation, parametric downconversion, filamentation, etc. We present here a brief overview of the various aspects on nonlinear optics and some of the recent advances in the field.
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