The use of strategies and tactics that might be labeled as hybrid, either by state or non-state actors caused a debate on the history and development of such approaches. While they are not entirely new, by comparing, for instance, the current Russian approach in this respect to its older versions, one might notice some elements of novelty. Starting with the 1920 concept of maskirovka and further building on the idea of information war or the well-known “active measures”, Moscow created an entire infrastructure designed to blur the lines between the states of war and peace, as General Valery Gherasimov, Russia's Chief of the General Staff, pointed out in an article in 2013. Furthermore, the rapid development of information technology offered new tools in support of a hybrid approach, including means for amplifying messaging and propaganda to unprecedented levels, far more difficult to counter without proper mechanisms.
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