We present a generic method for turning passively secure protocols into protocols secure against covert attacks. This method adds to the protocol a post-execution verification phase that allows a misbehaving party to escape detection only with negligible probability. The execution phase, after which the computed protocol result is already available to the parties, has only negligible overhead added by our method.
The method uses shared verification based on linear probabilistically checkable proofs. The checks are done in zero-knowledge, thereby preserving the privacy guarantees of the original protocol. This method is inspired by recent results in verifiable computation, adapting them to the multiparty setting and significantly lowering their computational costs for the provers. The verification is straightforward to apply to protocols over finite fields.
A longer preprocessing phase can be introduced to shorten the verification phase even more. Beaver triples can be used to make it possible to verify the entire protocol execution locally on shares, leaving for verification just some linear combinations that do not need complex zero-knowledge proofs. Using preprocessing provides a natural way of verifying computation over rings of the size of 2n.
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