The marginalization, alienation and sometimes victimization of whole communities, and the resulting perception of discrimination and injustice, can help justify and rationalize extremist beliefs. They can also render a whole community vulnerable to exploitation by radical elements and unable to defend itself. Among these factors, one finds the differential social and psychological impact of various counter-terrorism measures on the marginalized groups. Too little attention has been paid to the unintended impact on these vulnerable groups, diasporas, immigrants and other minority groups of the various measures taken to combat terrorism and counter-radicalization measures. Some communities are held hostage by criminal or radical groups, living under constant fear and intimidation. The counter-terrorism measures favoured by the State rarely extend to offering effective protection to these communities against the radical elements hiding within them. This paper considers these issues as well as available research on effective strategies, including broad inclusion programmes, to protect and support vulnerable groups whose youth are at risk of exclusion and marginalization.
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