The chapter presents recent advances of fuzzy systems in biomedicine. A short introduction is made on the main concepts of fuzzy sets theory. Then, a survey of recent research reports (2000 and beyond) is performed, in order to map existing theoretical trends in fuzzy systems in biomedicine, as well as important real-world biomedical applications using fuzzy sets theory. The surveyed research reports are divided into different categories either (a) according to the medical practice (diagnosis, therapy and imaging - including signal processing) or (b) according to the kind of problem faced (device control, biological control, classification and pattern analysis, and prediction-association). Recently emerging biological topics related to gene expression data, molecular - cellular analysis and bioinformatics, using fuzzy sets theory, are also reported in the chapter.
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