Cyberspace offers the prospect of sub rosa warfare, in which neither side acknowledges that they are in conflict with one another or even that one side has been attacked at all. This is possible for two reasons: first, because the battle damage from some types of cyber attack may not be globally visible, and second because attribution can be very difficult. The reason that both sides may keep matters sub rosa is to maintain freedom of actions, on the theory that public visibility may complicate negotiations and lead to escalation. Nevertheless, sub rosa warfare has it dangers, notably a lack of the kind of scrutiny that may promote actions which cannot bear the light of day, and the overconfident assumption that no third party is aware of what is going on between the hackers of both sides.
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