During the last decade parallel computing technologies transformed main stream computing. The majority of notebooks and standard PC's today incorporate multi processor chips with up to four processors. This number is expected to soon reach eight and more. These standard components allow the construction of high speed parallel systems in the petascale range at a reasonable cost. The number of processors incorporated in such systems is of the order of 104 to 106.
Due to the flexibility offered by parallel systems constructed with commodity components, these can easily be linked through wide area networks, for example the Internet, to realise Grids or Clouds. Such networks can be accessed by a wide community of users from many different disciplines to solve compute intensive and/or data intensive problems requiring high speed computing resources.
The problems associated with the efficient and effective use of such large systems were the theme of the biannual High Performance Computing workshop held in July 2008 in Cetraro, Italy. A selection of papers presented at the workshop are combined with a number of invited contributions in this book.
The papers included cover a range of topics, from algorithms and architectures to Grid and Cloud technologies to applications and infrastructures for e-science.
The editors wish to thank all the authors for preparing their contributions as well as the reviewers who supported this effort with their constructive recommendations.
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