A systematic approach to ergonomics evaluation, design and testing of hand tools with particular emphasis on hand-powered tools is presented. Basically, ergonomics evaluation and testing processes used for hand tools are synonymous. However, for the purpose of this chapter, ergonomics evaluation of a hand tool deals with an existing (non-ergonomically designed) hand tool of a particular kind to identify the shortcomings or deficiencies from an ergonomics viewpoint for designing or redesigning an ergonomically sound hand tool of the selected kind. The ergonomics testing of a hand tool deals with an ergonomically designed hand tool, in terms of selected criteria. The ergonomics evaluation of hand tool deals with the characteristics of the tool and the task and the effects of the tool on the operator. The ergonomics evaluation of hand tool is concerned with the mechanical output of the tool, tool mass and centre of gravity, tool dimension and grip, use of different grips and tool surface. In the performance of the hand tool task, the demands on force, precision and task duration must be given due consideration. The impact of the tool on the operator is evaluated in terms of working posture, wrist flexion/deviation angles, machine load and fatigue, type of grip used, local hand pressure and injury risk. In the ergonomics design of hand tool special emphasis is given to the physiology and anthropometric characteristics of the hand and hand grip. In the design of hand-powered hand tool and in particular the design of the tool handle, the relevant factors are: length, size (diameter), shape, material, angulations, snap-on-handles, mechanical output, centre of gravity and weight. For the design of power hand tool, the main issue of concern is vibration. Before conducting ergonomics testing of hand tool, it is necessary to obtain relevant information concerning (tool) functional requirement, work method or motions involved in task performance and working posture through direct observation and/or input from experienced users. The ergonomics testing of an ergonomically designed or redesigned hand tool is performed for functional effectiveness, work performance or productivity, physiological or muscular stress and subjective acceptance or comfort. It should be understood that the details presented under ergonomics evaluation, design and testing are not applicable in each and every situation, only relevant factors need to be considered in a particular situation. The characteristics of hand-powered (hammers, shovels, knives, saws, pliers and screwdrivers) and power (power drills and nutrunners) tools commonly used in industry are presented.