Various threats to civilization have been recently observed to increase in number. They include natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and many other hazards. The situation is aggravated by the fact that a number of catastrophes may be caused by deliberate attacks of terrorists. Therefore, it is necessary to develop intensively and implement new special methodologies, techniques and approaches aimed at elaborating methods to forecast large natural and man-induced catastrophes as well as to prevent and eliminate their consequences. For several years IBRAE RAS has been running systematic research on ecological risks associated with environmental contamination and its health effects (http://ibrae.ac.ru). The methodology created is recommended by international organizations, such as WHO, UNEP, Russian Health Ministry and used presently in Europe and the USA. Models have been developed for the migration of contaminants into the environment and their entering a human body, as well as methods for estimating risk factors, including comparative analysis for radiation and chemical risks. The obtained results in the article on Central Asia and Caucasian regions may be used for analysis of the similar objects and situations in other countries.
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