Existence of unexplained mass casualties and unnatural disease outbreaks are main indicators of chemical and biological attack. The threat from these agents should not only be considered a military issue, but also an act of terrorism. Therefore, it should be noted that civilians may also be exposed to these agents. There is an increasing concern around the possibility of terrorist use of biological agents including bacteria, viruses and toxins in recent times. Finally, the catastrophic September 2001 attacks intensified the interest of biological terrorism and the necessity of a multilateral cooperation regarding a chem-bio defense policy. Since the use of biological agents is not always initially evident contrary to chemical agents, outbreak of diseases may provide a first indication of an attack. Collaboration between the organizations and institutions against biological terrorism has to be taken into careful and extensive consideration.
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