This chapter explores the potential threats arising from the development and weaponization of incapacitants – chemical or biochemical agents that act on biochemical and physiological systems, especially those affecting the higher regulatory activity of the central nervous system to produce a disabling condition. The chapter then explores the roles for independent scientists in monitoring incapacitant research and development, utilising open source material, national oversight and transparency mechanisms, field missions, etc. It also explores how independent scientists can build a culture of responsibility, and promote and contribute to effective intergovernmental mechanisms to address the potential misuse of incapacitants.
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