This chapter examines the motivating themes and strategies of several Islamist groups. In contrast to the literature on global jihad, it focuses on groups with local grievances and issues in a concentrated manner. First of all, there is al-Qa'ida fi Jazirat al-Arabiyya, a self-declared AQ affiliate. It carried out acts of terrorism against foreigners in Saudi Arabia but not elsewhere, its main grievance being the Saudi government's links to the US and the role of foreign oil companies. The links between the groups are loose and often opportunistic. In addition, there has been recruitment throughout the region to Iraq where the classic theme of resistance against the foreign occupiers unified recruits from many sources with other totally different actors. It also examines the effectiveness of a Saudi program aimed at deradicalization.
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