Many young French citizens with Maghreb roots but born and raised in France have been involved in rioting and in terrorist acts. They grow up in crowded outer suburbs and attend secular schools. Although they live in the French society they felt excluded, and never integrated with the majority population. With the dilemma of French and Muslim as mutually exclusive categories and full Frenchness denied to them, the outcome for many of them is being successfully recruited into embracing Islamism and often in its extremist variant. This is unlikely to change unless these young people are offered a viable alternative: integration in terms of equal opportunity.
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