The French risk management system gives equal importance on the front end (pre-disaster) and on the back end (post-disaster). It is based on the idea that effectiveness, needs appraisal of social, economic, and environment risk acceptability. If a disaster is neither natural nor industrial from this point of view; it always is a human disaster insofar as it results from some amount of deliberate risk exposure. Therefore risk management is more a political than a technical issue, which means that citizen participation, NGOs and private initiatives are crucial to formulate risk and disaster policies.
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