Let χ be an irreducible, smooth, projective curve of genus g ≥ 2 defined over the complex field C. Then there is a covering π : χ → P1, where P1 denotes the projective line. The problem of expressing branch points of the covering π in terms of the transcendentals (period matrix, thetanulls, e.g.) is classical. It goes back to Riemann, Jacobi, Picard and Rosenhein. Many mathematicians, including Picard and Thomae, have offered partial treatments for this problem. In this work, we address the problem for cyclic curves of genus 2, 3, and 4 and find relations among theta functions for curves with automorphisms. We consider curves of genus g > 1 admitting an automorphism σ such that χσ has genus zero and σ generates a normal subgroup of the automorphism group Aut(χ) of χ.
To characterize the locus of cyclic curves by analytic conditions on its Abelian coordinates, in other words, theta functions, we use some classical formulas, recent results of Hurwitz spaces, and symbolic computations, especially for genera 2 and 3. For hyperelliptic curves, we use Thomae’s formula to invert the period map and discover relations among the classical thetanulls of cyclic curves. For non hyperelliptic curves, we write the equations in terms of thetanulls.
Fast genus 2 curve arithmetic in the Jacobian of the curve is used in cryptography and is based on inverting the moduli map for genus 2 curves and on some other relations on theta functions. We determine similar formulas and relations for genus 3 hyperelliptic curves and offer an algorithm for how this can be done for higher genus curves. It is still to be determined whether our formulas for g = 3 can be used in cryptographic applications as in g = 2.