Numerous methods have proven useful in the study of zinc in biological systems. This chapter briefly reviews several methods for determining and imaging zinc, particularly in aqueous solutions, cells, and tissues. The sections are written for bioscientists who are potentially interested in a method but may have little experience with it. The methods include fluorescent stains for zinc, fluorescence-based biosensors, X-ray fluorescence, determination of zinc binding affinity, and fiber optic biosensors. For each method the principle and background are described, followed by a brief summary of the procedure and typical results, and concluding with the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
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