Accurate biomechanical characteristics of tissues are essential for developing realistic virtual reality surgical simulators utilizing haptic feedback. Surgical simulation technology has progressed rapidly but lacks a comprehensive database of soft tissue mechanical properties with which to incorporate. Simulators are often designed purely based on what “feels right;” quantitative empirical data are lacking. A motorized endoscopic grasper was used to test abdominal porcine tissues in-vivo and in-situ with cyclic and static compressive loadings. An exponential constitutive equation was fit to the resulting stress-strain curves, and the coefficients were compared for various conditions. Stress relaxation for liver and small bowel were also examined. Differences between successive squeezes and between in-vivo and in-situ conditions were found.
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