Virtual Reality-based surgical simulators can utilize Collaborative Virtual Environments (C-VEs) to provide team-based training. To support real-time interactions, C-VEs are typically replicated on each user's local computer and a synchronization method helps keep all local copies consistent. This approach does not work well for voxel-based C-VEs since large and frequent volumetric updates make synchronization difficult. This paper describes a method that allows multiple users to interact within a voxel-based C-VE for a craniotomy simulator being developed. Our C-VE method requires smaller update sizes and provides faster synchronization update rates than volumetric-based methods [1,2]. Additionally, we address network bandwidth/latency issues to simulate networked haptic and bone drilling tool interactions with a voxel-based skull C-VE.
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