Novices' learning of temporal bone drilling on a simple (2D) model was compared to learning of the skill on a complex model (3D). Trainees practicing on 2D model required an additional 3D practice to achieve similar final products as those practicing on a 3D model. This implies that during learning fundamental psychomotor adaptations take place, regardless of the exact skill practiced. However to achieve optimal products the depth of drilling must be practiced separately on high fidelity models.
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