We propose objectively assessing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) skills by measuring the force applied to a patient model. We collected data on 16 subjects performing gauze packing task using a precise human nasal model with a six-degree-of-freedom force/torque sensor. Mann-Whitney's U test was used to analyze their performance. Intermediates (ESS: 10-50 cases) used significantly greater force than students or experts (ESS: over 150 cases) at the 5 % level. Maximum force improved only among experts. These results imply that young surgeons pay too little attention to force applied to patients or tissues.
IOS Press, Inc.
6751 Tepper Drive
Clifton, VA 20124
Tel.: +1 703 830 6300
Fax: +1 703 830 2300 firstname.lastname@example.org
(Corporate matters and books only) IOS Press c/o Accucoms US, Inc.
For North America Sales and Customer Service
West Point Commons
Lansdale PA 19446
Tel.: +1 866 855 8967
Fax: +1 215 660 5042 email@example.com